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Type Journal Article - Annals of International Medical and Dental Research
Title Assessment of Iron Deficiency Anemia as a Risk Factor for Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Nepalese Children-A Cross-Sectional Study.
Volume 2
Issue 6
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2016
Page numbers 71-80
URL http://aimdrjournal.com/pdf/vol2Issue6/ME17_OA_Rakhi_2_6_80.pdf
Background: Anemia and acute lower respiratory tract infections are persistent and pervasive public health problems.
Objective-To determine the relation of iron deficiency anemia with lower respiratory tract infection. Methods: The study
included 82 diagnosed cases of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children of age 6 months to 5 years.
Detailed history and physical examination was done according to predesigned proforma. Laboratory investigations like
complete blood count, red blood cell morphology and serum ferritin was carried out. Data was statistically analyzed.
Results: Out of 82 cases, 34 cases were iron deficiency positive. Among 82 cases, majority of them were below 24
months. Gender wise, male population was higher compared to female. Sixty one percent of the cases belonged to middle
class and 39% belonged to lower class. Cough was present in all acute lower respiratory tract infection patients followed by
fast breathing, fever, chest in drawing, noisy breathing, poor feeding and the least of all was bluish discoloration of
face/lips. The overall mean temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate were 100.360
F, 113.41 per minute and 58.49 per
minute respectively. Among signs, tachypnea for age was present in all cases. Auscultatory chest findings revealed normal
auscultatory findings in 12.2% patients, only crepitation in 42.7%, only rhonchi in 17.1% and both crepitation and rhonchi in
28%. Pneumonia was predominant with 79.3% among 82 cases. Except eosinophil and monocyte counts, mean of other
counts significantly differ among the bronchiolitis patients and pneumonia patients. Out of 82 cases, 22% had Hb≥11gm/dl
and remaining had Hb<11gm/dl. Out of 18 cases with Hb≥11gm/dl, 14 were pneumonia and 4 cases were bronchiolitis.
Conclusion: Simple intervention with cheap, dependable and cost effective prevention of lower respiratory tract infection
with iron supplementation in children under 5 years of age might the reduce incidence of morbidity and mortality.

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