Scale-up of integrated malaria vector control: lessons from Malawi

Type Journal Article - Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Title Scale-up of integrated malaria vector control: lessons from Malawi
Volume 94
Issue 6
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2016
Page numbers 475-480
Problem Indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are key tools for malaria vector control. Malawi has struggled
to scale up indoor residual spraying and to improve LLIN coverage and usage.
Approach In 2002, the Malawian National Malaria Control Programme developed guidelines for insecticide treated net distribution to
reach the strategic target of at least 60% coverage of households with an LLIN. By 2005, the target coverage was 80% of households and
the Global Fund financed the scale-up. The US President’s Malaria Initiative funded the indoor residual spraying intervention.
Local setting Malawi’s entire population is considered to be at risk of malaria. Poor vector control, insecticide resistance in malaria vectors
and insufficient technical and financial support have exacerbated the malaria burden.
Relevant changes Between 2002 and 2012, 18 248 206 LLINs had been distributed. The coverage of at least one LLIN per household
increased from 27% (3689/13 664) to 58% (1974/3404). Indoor residual spraying coverage increased from 28 227 to 653 592 structures
between 2007 and 2011. However, vector resistance prompted a switch from pyrethroids to organophosphates for indoor residual spraying,
which increased the cost and operations needed to be cut back from seven to one district. Malaria cases increased from 2 853 315 in 2002
to 6 748 535 in 2010, and thereafter dropped to 4 922 596 in 2012.
Lessons learnt A single intervention-based approach for vector control may have suboptimal impact. Well-coordinated integrated vector
management may offer greater benefits. A resistance management plan is essential for effective and sustainable vector control.

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