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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Title Diagnosis of paediatric tuberculosis using sputum induction in Botswana: programme description and findings
Volume 18
Issue 3
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2014
Page numbers 328-334
URL https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Paul_Mullan2/publication/261137790_Diagnosis_of_paediatric_tube​rculosis_using_sputum_induction_in_Botswana_Programme_description_and_findings/links/543bd5650cf24a6​ddb97b180.pdf
SETTING: Four public hospitals in Botswana, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden setting.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and utility of sputum induction in the diagnosis of paediatric TB.

DESIGN: From 2008 to 2010, children aged ≤18 years referred for suspected pulmonary TB underwent sputum induction. Confirmed TB was defined as the presence of at least one of the signs and symptoms suggestive of TB and positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. Information on TB-associated symptoms (cough, fatigue, night sweats, low appetite, chest pain, weight loss, haemoptysis and contact with a TB case) was collected for three risk groups: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive children, HIV-negative children aged <3 years and HIV-negative children aged ≥3 years.

RESULTS: The median age of the 1394 subjects who underwent sputum induction was 3.8 years (IQR 1.3–8.4); 373 (27%) were HIV-positive, 419 (30%) were HIV-negative and 602 (43%) had unknown HIV status. TB was confirmed in 84 (6.0%); cases were more likely to have weight loss, chest pain or TB household contacts. There were no serious complications attributable to sputum induction during and after the procedure; only 0.8% (9/1174) of patients reported minor complications.

CONCLUSIONS: In Botswana, paediatric sputum induction was feasible, safe and assisted bacteriological confirmation in a subgroup of children treated for TB.

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