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Citation Information

Type Thesis or Dissertation - Master of Public Health
Title Factors affecting utilization of voluntary counselling and testing services: comparison between public boys’ and girls’ secondary schools in Nairobi county.
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2012
URL http://etd-library.ku.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/123456789/6514/RONO EMILY​CHEMNGETICH.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
HIV and AIDS is one of the biggest threats to global health and stability. UNAIDS
estimated that there were 33.3 million people living with HIV at the end of 2009. In 2009, there
were an estimated 2.6 million people who became newly infected with HIV. In sub-Saharan
Africa, where the majority of new HIV infections continue to occur, an estimated 1.8 million
people became infected in the same year; Individuals in their most productive years (15-
49 years old) are most commonly infected with HIV and AIDS, the disease has a wide
socioeconomic impact that threatens development progress in many poor countries,
especially those in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV prevalence in girls aged 15 to 19 years old
is six times higher than in boys of the same age group. VCT services act as entry point
for behaviour formation, behaviour change and care and support in HIV prevention.
The broad objective of this study was to determine knowledge, access and factors
affecting utilization of VCT services among secondary school students in public
schools in Nairobi County. Data was collected using pretested questionnaires.
Reliability of the data collection instrument was established using the internal
consistency technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and presented in bar
graphs, pie charts, percentages and measures of central tendency. 2x2 contingency
tables, correlation analysis and chi-square statistics were used to test the hypotheses.
The respondents were aged between 13 – 20 years. The mean age was 16.2 years. Of
the 385 respondents, 213 were females representing 55.3%. Having heard of VCT was
closely associated to knowing the function of VCT (χ
(df=1) =9.214, p≤0.002). Students
in boarding schools were more likely to know the meaning of HIV (χ
(df=3) =55.614,
p≤0.023) and generally more knowledgeable. Only 18.2% had ever been to a VCT.
Students in day schools who knew how HIV is spread were more likely to have gone to
VCT to know their status (χ
(df=3) =16.340, p ≤. 0.003). There is a significant difference
in sexual activeness of students with school type (χ
(df=3) =84.11, p<0.0001). Students in
day school tend to have a higher number of sexual partners than those in boarding
schools (χ
(df=6)=125.086, p<0.0001). Those who did not think they could get HIV were
more likely to have more than one sexual partners (χ
(df=2) =19.719, p≤. 0.0001). 55.1%
of the respondents discussed about going to VCT. Of those who discussed, 49.8%
discussed with their friends, 31.4% discussed with their girlfriends or boyfriends.
Students in boarding schools were less likely to encourage others to VCT use compared
to those in day schools. Respondents who have been to VCT to know their status were
more likely to have encouraged or discussed with others about going to VCT to know
their status (χ
(df=1) =36.938, p≤0.00001). The factors that affected VCT service
utilization included fear, risk perception, distance to the nearest VCT centre, sexual
activity, knowledge of infected person, school type, knowledge on VCT and HIV, and
availability of youth-friendly VCT centres. There exists a knowledge gap among the
youth on the importance of VCT in control of HIV. Interventions are needed to
promote utilization of VCT services by the secondary school students. These
interventions could use the peers and PLWA to encourage the youth to be tested. Youth
friendly VCT centres should be set up or increased in numbers so as to encourage the
youth to seek the services. The findings of this study will be used by government policy
makers, NACC, NASCOP, NGOs, education sector and other organizations involved in
the fight against HIV and AIDS especially among the youth.

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