Abstract Objectives This study investigates the patterns and levels of condom use; the determinants of condom use and of consistency of use among young adults aged 15-24 years in the Africa Centre Demographic Surveillance Area (ACDSA) in 2005. Methodology Secondary data analysis of data from three sources of surveys conducted in ACDSA in 2005 was done. A sample of 4 157 respondents was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analysis was employed to compare determinants of condom use and of consistency of use. Results Condom use with the most recent partner in the last year was (51.7%). The main determinants of condom use were partner age difference, residence of partner and assets. Having an older partner than a same age partner was associated with less likely to use condoms (AOR=0.71 p=0.03 females, AOR=0.51 p=0.01 males). Those who were not residing with their partners were more likely to use condoms than those residing with their partners (AOR=1.62 p=0.01 females, AOR=1.61 p=0.03 males). Having more than seven assets was associated with increased chances of using condoms than those with less than seven assets (AOR=1.51 p<0.01 females, AOR=1.67 p<0.01 males). The key determinants of consistent condom use were: age, sex and type of relationship. Females were less likely to use condoms consistently (AOR=0.63 p=0.02) and growing older was associated with lower consistent condom use (AOR=0.88 p<0.01 females, AOR=0.90 p<0.01 males). Being in a marital/cohabiting relationship was associated with lower consistent condom use (AOR=0.68 p<0.01 both sexes and AOR=0.64 p=0.01 males) than those in non-marital/non-cohabiting relationship. v Conclusion Condom use differs between sexes and decreases with age probably because condoms are a male determined method, high contraception use, poor negotiation skills for condom use, need for children and formation of more stable relationships. A better socio-economic status increases condom use. Consistent condom use is lower in marital relationships and when the partner is older. This could be because of gender power inequalities in sexual relationships.