Food choices and macro-and micronutrient intake of Sowetans with chronic heart failure

Type Thesis or Dissertation - Masters
Title Food choices and macro-and micronutrient intake of Sowetans with chronic heart failure
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2011
In South Africa, rapid urbanisation and epidemiological transition have left the black urban population vulnerable to diseases of lifestyle such as chronic heart failure. This is in part due to the fact that changes in dietary patterns during urbanization play an important role in the increase of risk factors of these diseases. However, there is a lack of information on dietary choices of black urban populations. Therefore the current study evolved to describe the food choices and macro-and micronutrient intake of black, urban Sowetans, newly diagnosed with chronic heart failure, who attended the outpatient cardiac clinic at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital.
A descriptive study methodology that made use of quantitative methods of data collection was used. Study participants comprised Sowetans with chronic heart failure who attended the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital outpatient cardiac clinic for the first time. Consecutive sampling followed by stratified random sampling was used to identify study participants. Participants were stratified for gender. Hundred persons participated in the study. Data was collected through the Food Frequency Questionnaire, a demographic questionnaire and measuring of height and weight. Data from the FFQ's was analysed for macro- and micronutrient intake by using the MRC "Food Finder 3? programme. Data were analysed by a statistician using StatSoft, Inc. (2009) STATISTICA, version 9.0. A p value of 0.05 was seen as statistically significant.
The most significant clinical finding is an inadequate intake of certain micro nutrients and excessive salt consumption. Study participants continued to eat the more traditional carbohydrate foods. These staples were supplemented by highly refined carbohydrate sources, such as added sugar, sweets and chocolates, cakes, biscuits and cold drinks. Women ate significantly more maltabella (p=0.04), sweets and chocolates (p=0.01) than men, while men consumed significantly more, meat (p=0.01), milk and milk products (p=0.04), additional salt (p=0.02) and take away foods (p=0.05). Both genders had inadequate intake of Vitamin D [men 4 mcg/day (p=0.00), and women, 4 mcg/day (p=0.01)], selenium, [46 mcg/day (p=0.03) and 32 mcg/day (p=0.00)], folate [215 mcg/day (p=0.00) and 179 mcg/day (p=0.00)] and Vitamin C [71 mg/day (p=0.05) and 66 mg/day (p=0.07)]. Women had an inadequate intake of iron of 9 mg/day (P=0.00). It is recommended that dietary health promotion packages are developed and targeted specifically at this high risk community.
Key words: Chronic heart failure, black, urban, food choices, macro-and micronutrients

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