This article describes why greater attention needs to be given to the role of demographic phenomena in creating Sudan's current economic crisis. While state planning and direct involvement in the economy may be on the decline throughout Africa, the public sector cannot simply stop taking any responsibility for planning and policy-making in the domains of population and human resources development. The current nature and scope of population and human resources planning in the Sudan is evaluated and a description given of the machinery and institutions involved in the planning process. Their overall effectiveness is assessed. A broad framework based upon a socioeconomic and demographic system relevant to the objectives of human resources development is presented, with the proposed framework identifying the institutions responsible for creating and monitoring plans for human resources development.