This study utilizes data from the 2001-2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey to investigate how knowledge of the ABC prevention methods (Abstain, Be faithful, use Condoms) affects sexual behavior. The main hypothesis is that correct knowledge of a specific HIV prevention method will increase the likelihood of reporting adoption of that prevention behavior. Logistic regression results indicate a significant positive relationship between specific prevention knowledge and prevention behavior for all three ABC behaviors. The role of knowledge was greatest in predicting abstinence behavior among young adults; knowledge of prevention through abstinence increased probability of reported abstinence by 16 percentage points. Results confirm the continued importance of educational interventions to increase prevention knowledge. In addition, there were strong differences in the strength of the knowledge effect by gender. This provides compelling evidence that separate strategies are needed to address prevention methods for women versus men. Finally, this study suggests that it may be time to move from the traditional urban / rural view to one that incorporates regionspecific trends in sexual behaviors.