Estimation of fluoride in drinking water in selected areas of Southern Lahore, Pakistan (a case study)

Type Journal Article - Science International (Lahore)
Title Estimation of fluoride in drinking water in selected areas of Southern Lahore, Pakistan (a case study)
Volume 28
Issue 1
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2016
Page numbers 391-395
URL a 391- 395 Amir Farooq--CE--UOL--27-11-15 COMPOSED.pdf
The study investigated the level of fluoride contamination in drinking water sources developed both by Water
and Sanitation Agency (WASA) and privately by public. Fifty (50) water samples were collected from all four ports of the
village during winter 2013. NOVA-60 Spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentration. Apart from fluoride other
parameter investigated in this study included pH, electrical conductivity and turbidity. The study indicated that 34 percent
water samples collected from shallower depths in privately developed sources had fluoride concentrations in excess of limit set
by National Standards for Drinking Water Quality(NSDWQ).The both sources of public water supply schemes, installed at
depth of 400 feet, indicated concentration of fluoride well below the prescribed limits of 1.5 mg/l. However, the water samples
collected form houses served by same safe sources had contamination of fluoride. The study indicated presence of fluoride rich
top layer of soil, surface ponding of polluted water in street, existing large wastewater pond in western side of village, leaked
/broken water supply lines and suction of contaminated water under negative pressure developed in water supply pipes due to
long intervals of 16-18 hours of power failure as cause of this type of contamination. In most of the sample collected from
study area, the parameters namely turbidity, pH and Electrical conductivity exhibited positive relation with fluoride. The study
recommended the need of initiation of water quality surveillance and epidemiological study in area regarding health impacts
of fluoride in village. Further detailed investigations on the effects of stagnated wastewater pond on a large area at periphery
of village and its impacts with reference to concentration of fluoride at shallower depth were also deemed necessary in the

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