To reduce levels of outdoor air pollution, new energy-efficient solid fuel stoves have been offered for sale in the ger regions of Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia. These energyefficient stoves ideally use less fuel than the traditional stove and emit a tenth of the pollutant emissions. However, because the stoves were only broadly introduced in August 2011, limited documented information exists of actual household fuel and stove use behaviors or the impact of those behaviors on emissions. During the 2011-2012 heating season (October–March), we evaluated stove use behavior in a small subset of ger households with either a traditional or an energy-efficient stove. Relying on a combination of in-person interviews and stove use monitor (SUM) technology, we observe that stove use behavior can vary substantially between households and identify three main burn cycles related to the use of the energy-efficient stove, which may impact the degree to which particulate matter (PM) emissions can be mitigated. We analyze the temperature data recorded by the SUMs from a convenience sample of 13 ger households with small Turkish (Ulzi) stoves and 4 households with traditional Mongolian stoves. We show that SUMs can potentially play a key role in identifying the frequency of ignition and refueling events and thus the impact user behavior can have on stove emissions. Our analysis reveals that household using small-Turkish stoves in our cohort use their stoves on average 2.5 times per day during the heating season (December 2011-February 2012). But, in a subset of these ger households, the small-Turkish stove use frequency can be as high as four stove use events per day, suggesting the occurrence of refueling events that may lead to increased PM emissions.