This study focuses on factors that predispose young persons aged 15–24 years in Zimbabwe to infection from HIV. Using the Mosley and Chen framework, multivariate modelling was used to assess the effect of demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors on the risk of HIV infection among this target group. The study utilised data from the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) conducted in 2005–06. Only the variables that were signi?cant in the bivariate analysis were included in the multivariate binary logistic regression. Young females aged 15–24 years are associated with a signi?cant two-fold elevated risk of HIV infection relative to their male peers (p , 0.000). Young persons aged 15–24 yearswho were divorced, widowed or not living together have signi?cantly elevated risk compared with their never-married counterparts, OR ¼ 5.267 (p ¼ 0.000); OR ¼ 4.323 (p ¼ 0.000) and OR ¼ 3.272 (p ¼ 0.000), respectively. Young persons whose age at ?rst sexual intercourse was less than 14 years are signi?cantly associated with 2.696 times more risk of HIV infection relative to their peers whose age at ?rst sexual intercourse was 20–24 years (p ¼ 0.000). Young persons aged 15–24 years with two or more sex partners in the past 12 months preceding the 2005–06 ZDHS survey had a signi?cantly elevated risk of HIV infection of 1.568 times relative to their counterparts with no sex partners in the same period of time. Great challenges still exist for the control of HIV and AIDS among young persons in Zimbabwe. HIV prevention programmes targeted at young persons aged 15–24 years should provide invigorated focus on marital status, age at sexual debut, number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections and condom use so as to mitigate these predisposing factors for HIV infection.