Douala, the most important metropolis of Cameroon, is a sub-Saharan wet coastal environment of which the anarchic urbanization is a socio-economic and environmental problem, significantly influencing the local climate. In this study, three Landsat images from 1986 (TM), 2007 (ETM+) and 2016 (LDCM), were utilized to investigate the effect of this urbanization on the increasing land surface temperature (LST) between these dates. Thus, the urban indices (UI), determined from the Landsat Visible and NIR channels were used to identify impervious areas (Urban Fabric and bare soil) of urban area. It has been shown from the UI images that, impervious areas have been increased from 1986 to 2016. The LST images derived have a continual expansion of zones and points of heat throughout these dates. The correlation analysis of LST and UI, at the pixel-scale, indicated the positive relationship between these parameters, which could show a real impact of urbanization on the increasing temperature in the area. These correlations are fairly low in 1986 (maximum R-square value is about 0.35) and in 2007 (maximum R-square value is about 0.44. In 2016, a high positive correlation (maximum R-square value is about 0.77) confirm that, the impervious areas strengthen the temperature and the Urban Heat Island effect in Douala urban zone. Overall, the earth observation images and the geographic information system techniques were effective approaches for aiming at environment monitoring and analyzing urban growth patterns and evaluating their impacts on urban climates.