Cowpeas are an important food legume. They are drought tolerant with the potential to minimize income and yield risks, as well as meet nutritional demands. Despite these benefits, the pulse industry has offered a limited line of cowpea products. There is a dearth in information on cowpeas supply chain participation, and knowledge with regard to the determinants of the growers’ participation in the cowpeas supply chains is unclear. Using data from the third Supplemental Survey to the 1999/2000 Post Harvest Survey carried out in 2008 by CSO and FSRP, this paper consolidates information on cowpea production and supply chain participation determinants in Zambia. The empirical estimation was carried out by use of the probit model. Southern Province accounts for the highest proportion (55%) of cowpea producers, followed by Central province with a proportion of 12% of the producers. The probit results indicated that the following factors were statistically significant in determining supply chain participation; price of output (p=0.06), mechanization (0.00), land under cultivation(0.06), ownership of vehicular transport(0.01) and total income(0.01). Development of appropriate, simple and cheap technologies can enhance supply chain participation, and also value addition possibilities should be explored to create new markets and raise income generated from cowpeas production. The use of improved seed varieties and production practices can be considered (as an alternative to increasing the land under cowpeas cultivation) to achieve larger outputs which ultimately affect supply chain participation positively.