Although the majority of the authors agree on the consequences of the child labor, more and more, there is less of unanimity on the determinants of this phenomenon. On this subject, a certain number of studies in social sciences highlighted the existence of a close relationship between the household’s poverty and child labor. Basu and Van built a model of the economy of households which takes account explicitly of the importance of the households’ standard living on the insertion of children in the socioeconomic activities. We will try in our paper to investigate on the determinants of the child labor in Tlemcen by the means of questionary addressed for 474 urban and rural households of 19 communes of the town. First of all, we study the axiom of luxury of Basu and Van, and focusing our research on the “Algerian aspects” of poverty and child labor. Our study aims to be a characterization of the determinants of child labor by criteria supposed influence this phenomenon from the outset, such as poverty, gender of household head, education of children or by living environment between the Rural and urban using the Multiple Component Analysis (MCA).