Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major public health problem in Nepal. For the effective management and surveillance of JE, a clear understanding of its epidemiology is essential. Therefore, we conducted descriptive and spatial analyses to understand the spatio-temporal distribution of JE in human in Nepal. From 2007 to 2015, 1,823 JE cases were reported with a cumulative mean incidence of 0.735/100,000 population and a case fatality rate of 6.6%. The death rate in the up-to-24 years of age group was 74%. The JE cases were most commonly reported in the age group of 1–14 years. There is a strong seasonal pattern of JE occurrence in Nepal which peaked in August and declined by October each year, which corresponds to the monsoon season. The JE cases were reported in 63 of 75 districts (84%), expanding in the mountain and hill regions. There was a strong clustering of JE incidence in the south-western and south-eastern Terai region, which is endemic for JE. Therefore, the JE surveillance system should be improved to better understand the drivers of disease expansion in Nepal for instituting a control program.