From 1890 Burundi was part of German East Africa and from 1919 part of Ruanda-Urundi, administered by Belgium as a League of Nations mandate. Internal self-government was granted on 1 Jan. 1962, followed by independence on 1 July 1962. In April 1972 fighting broke out between rebels from both Burundi and neighbouring countries and the ruling Tutsi, apparently with the intention of destroying the Tutsi hegemony. Up to 120,000 died. On 1 Nov. 1976 President Micombero was deposed by the Army, as was President Bagaza on 3 Sept. 1987. Maj. Pierre Buyoya assumed the presidency on 1 Oct. 1987.