|Title||Urban Transport Institutions and Governance and Integrated Land Use and Transport, Hanoi, Viet Nam|
Case studies of what is considered to be ‘good practice’ often draw on examples from the
developed world, but this case study takes a city that is striving to achieve good practice, and
which exhibits many of the characteristics of large numbers of cities in developing countries.
Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam – a low income country that is experiencing rapid economic
growth, and development of a market economy. Following the extension of the boundary of
Hanoi in August 2008, it is now a large urban agglomeration with a population of 6.47 million
in 2009 (of which 2.64 million were considered as urban residents).1
It is not the only city of
its size in Viet Nam (the other being Ho Chi Minh City), and is home to only 7.4 per cent of
the national population of 86 million (Government of Vietnam, 2009).
Like the rest of Viet Nam, Hanoi is experiencing rapid growth in population, economic
activity and travel demand, with associated pressures on urban development and transport
systems. Public transport supply is not meeting demand while motor cycle ownership and
congestion have been growing rapidly. Existing institutions are finding it hard to cope. To
address these pressures, Hanoi has taken and continues to take steps to better integrate its
urban land use and transport planning and to improve urban transport governance and related
institutions. For these reasons, this case study may offer more relevant lessons for politicians
and professionals in other developing country cities than case studies drawn from developed
Current arrangements for public transport governance within Hanoi split responsibilities
between central and local government level institutions, and various Hanoi city agencies.
Hanoi has recognized the problems this creates, and has recently started a reform process to
create a Public Transport Authority (PTA) to have overall responsibility for the planning,
design, and implementation of public transport infrastructure and services. A study of the
possible institutional and governance arrangements for the PTA will commence in 2011. In
parallel, Hanoi is considering the most appropriate arrangements for the operation of the
proposed new metro system which is in the early stages of design. Other developing country
cities could benefit by learning from Hanoi’s experience.
For a number of years, Hanoi has been tackling these challenges with support from various
multi-lateral international financial institutions and bi lateral development agencies. In this
regard, Hanoi could also be considered to be representative of many other major cities in low
income countries receiving international support.
This case study starts with an overview of Hanoi, including the current governance
arrangements, population and economic growth, and recent spatial development and transport
|»||Vietnam - Population and Housing Census 2009|