Tanzania is close to reach one of the Millennium Development Goals; to reduce child mortality with two-thirds between 1990 until 2015. This qualitative case study focuses on under-five children’s health in Babati district, situated in the north-west of Tanzania. The empirical data used in this thesis has been collected through interviews with health personnel and mothers during three weeks in February to March 2012. The purpose of the study has been to identify direct and underlying reasons causing child mortality, and to investigate what measures are needed to improve the situation. The most prominent diseases creating death amongst children are pneumonia and malaria, and also diarrheal diseases are common. The prevalence of the diseases differs from wet and dry season, whereas there are more cases of illness and death during the wet season. Malaria and pneumonia are common causes of death during the wet season, and diarrheal diseases are more common during the dry season. Underlying reasons affecting child mortality in Babati district are the lack of infrastructure, such as few well-functioning roads to the main hospitals which affects the rural population in particular. Also the limited access to transport is a vast problem when there is acute illness or childbirth. The clinics available in Babati district are poorly equipped and have a lack of personnel, creating a stressful situation for both healthcare workers and patients. More governmental funds and infrastructure is needed in the area to be able to create a sustainable situation for future children.