The Kilombero Valley floodplain (KVFP) inhabits a very large natural wetland of which over 70% is protected. Diverse mammals, amphibians, fish and bird species populate the area. Importantly, KVFP harbours 75% of the world Puku antelope population. Most human activities in the area include large and small scale farming, pastoralism and fishing. Recently, population pressure, overgrazing and aligned human activities have pressed strain on the land and water resources in the KVFP. The situation prompted the government of Tanzania to resettle some of the pastoral families so as to achieve sustainable natural resources management. The paper provides an insight of this resettlement exercise as a multilayered land use conflict and its effects to the land resources and people's livelihoods. Focused group discussions, key informant interviews both using checklists and literature review were the methods used for data collection. The Sukuma agro-pastoralists, Maasai and Barbaig pastoralists were the most ethnic groups affected by the resettlement exercise. It was envisaged that a pragmatic approach to land and water resources management such as effective land use plans, natural resource monitoring plans, sensitization programs and rule of law are needed to avoid future conflicts over land resources use and to ensure peoplecentered development process is achieved.