Reduction of infant mortality rate has been recognised as important goal in the Millennium Development Goals of United Nations Organisation. Assam in north eastern region of India has also experienced high rate of infant mortality in rural areas. Therefore, the paper attempts to highlight the problem of high rate of infant mortality in Assam. The study attempts to examine the trend of infant mortality in rural Assam in comparison with rural India. As adopting policies for reduction of this disparity depends crucially on identification of factors, therefore, the paper also put an endeavour to identify the factors behind the high infant mortality rate in rural Assam. The results show that improvement in health facilities in the state is slow in comparison with the country average. Monthly Per capita Consumer Expenditure, Literacy Rate, and Female Work Participation Rate are the significant factors in influencing infant Mortality Rate in rural Assam.