Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest gynecological cancer in Nigeria. The risk factors to cervical cancer are common in our environment. Objective: To determine the prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormalities and the risk factors associated with the disease in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Methods: A 5 year retrospective study of cervical cytology at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2012, was undertaken. Results: The prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormalities in this study was 11.2%. These cervical squamous cell abnormalities comprised ASC-US (0.6%), LSIL (3.9%) and HSIL (6.7%). Cervical squamous cell abnormalities were significantly commoner among clients who were smokers, live in rural areas, had high parity and history of vaginal discharge/itching. However, age at coitarche, educational qualification and use of hormonal contraceptives did not have any effect on cervical squamous cell abnormality in this study. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormality in Abakaliki. So there is need for public sensitization about this problem and the various ways of stemming the tide.