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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - Biological trace element research
Title Cord blood levels of toxic and essential trace elements and their determinants in the Terai region of Nepal: a birth cohort study
Author(s)
Volume 147
Issue 1-3
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2012
Page numbers 75-83
URL http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12011-011-9309-1
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cord
blood level of toxic and trace elements and to identify their
determinants in Terai, Nepal. One hundred pregnant women
were recruited from one hospital in Chitwan, Nepal in 2008.
The cord blood levels of toxic [lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and
cadmium (Cd)], essential trace elements [zinc (Zn), selenium
(Se), and copper (Cu)], demographic, socioeconomic, and
behavioral variables were measured. The mean values of Pb,
As, Cd, Zn, Se, and Cu in cord blood level were found as 31.7,
1.46, 0.39, 2,286, 175, and 667 μg/L, respectively. In the
multivariate regression model, cord blood As levels from less
educated mothers were higher than those from educated mothers
(coefficient0−0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]0−0.02–
0.00). The maternal age was positively associated with the cord
blood Cd level (coefficient00.02, 95% CI00.01–0.03), while
it was negatively associated with the cord blood As level
(coefficient0−0.01, 95% CI0−0.03–−0.01). Cord blood
levels of Pb, Zn, Se, and Cu were not associated with maternal
age, socioeconomic status, living environment, and smoking
status. As and Cd levels were relatively lower than those
reported in previous studies in Asia, while the levels of Pb
and the trace elements were similar. Less educated mothers are
more likely to become a higher in utero As source to their
fetus, and fetuses of older mothers were more likely to have
higher in utero Cd exposure in Terai, Nepal.

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