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Citation Information

Type Thesis or Dissertation - PhD thesis
Title Towards the modeling of indigenous poultry production in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: characterization and extension evaluation for poverty reduction
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2014
URL http://libdspace.ufh.ac.za/bitstream/handle/20.500.11837/371/PhD (Agric Extension)​YUSUF.pdf?sequence=1
Poverty remains a critical issue mostly in the rural South Africa. Various initiatives, policies and
programs have been enacted by the government with attempting to reduce poverty at the
national and provincial levels; poverty is yet to be abated. The target of the Millennium
Development Goal 1 (MDG1) of halving poverty by the year 2015 notwithstanding, poverty
remains a threat to quality livelihoods. Agriculture has continued to be one of the pillars of
government efforts to address poverty. However, in livestock production interventions, efforts of
government had largely been on cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and exotic poultry with little attention
being given to indigenous poultry production (IPP). This study explores the option of using IPP
to address rural poverty by capitalizing on its minimal inputs while recognizing its prevalence in
a variety of households. The study addresses the characterization of the IPP from the
perspectives of housing, feeding, healthcare management, breeding and marketing options.
Skill competencies of the indigenous poultry farmers (IPFs) and the Agricultural Development
Technicians (ADTs) were examined. This study reviewed poultry models in different parts of the
world with special attention to Africa. The human resource development program of the
department of rural development and agrarian reform was discussed. The study employed the
use of multi-methods approach, the quantitative and qualitative research methodologies.
Descriptive statistical analysis, frequent count, percentage, means, standard deviation, chisquare,
and principal component analysis was used in the quantitative data analysis while the
“open social system” was used for the qualitative methodology. Findings revealed that IPFs face
some challenges among which are, the poor housing that exposed the birds to inclement
weather, predator attacks and stock theft, high mortality of chicks after hatching and expensive
feed for the flock. The IPFs showed competencies in nine skill items that included ability to
identify chicken predators (x=3.92) and high yielding chickens (x=3.79); control of predators
(x=3.77); methods of using ethno veterinary drugs to treat chicken diseases and pests (x=3.72),
and identify signs of diseases (x=3.69), among others. However, the ADTs did not show any
competency in any of the 32 skills items. The principal component analysis with Varimax
rotation was performed to ascertain the dimensionality of the measures. Six factors with eigen
value of >1, which accounted for 77.317% were extracted, with each factor loading ranging from
0.523 to 0.93. Factor loading after rotation that emerged on the same component was
described; as brooding, shelter and care of the chicks; predators and healthcare; hygiene and
litter management; feeds and feeding stuff; and record keeping and marketing. The findings on
the human resource development revealed that staff meetings were the most common method
of capacity development. This was followed by in-service-training, formal study, workshop, and
on the job training. The farmers’ field school and study tours were sparingly used. However,
respondents were in favor of on-site training, staff meetings, formal study and in-servicetraining.
The findings on the appropriate model suggest a theoretical indigenous poultry
production model (IPPM) for the Eastern Cape Province (ECP). The “open social system” was
used to develop a framework for an indigenous poultry cooperative society (to be known as
Abafuyi Benkukhu Zemveli [ABZ]). This was meant to create a binding force for capacity
development, a strong economic foundation through equity contributions, creation of marketing
channels, and the development of a concept of ‘‘our own'' product in the market. Lastly, the
study offers options for a training program that would accommodate the new initiatives, with a
strong capacity development training approach. In this context, the study advocates for
institutional support for the IPFs and the incorporation of indigenous poultry in the curriculum of
the agricultural training programs at higher education institutions in South Africa

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