Background:Multiple micronutrient de?ciencies continue to be a major nutritional problem of public health signi?cance in India. Aim: To assess the prevalence of micronutrient de?ciencies among rural children of West Bengal, India. Subjects and methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out on 9228 and 437 pre-school children, respectively, for assessment of vitamin A de?ciency (VAD) and anaemia. Iodine de?ciency disorders (IDD) were assessed in 3490 children of 6 –12 years. Results: The prevalence of Bitot’s spots, an objective sign of clinical VAD, was 0.6% and was signi?cantly (p , 0.01) higher among children of 3–5 years. Prevalence of blood vitamin A de?ciency (,20mg/dL) was 61% and ,81% of children were anaemic. About 25% children had both sub-clinical VAD and anaemia. The children of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (OR ¼ 2.3: 95% CI ¼ 1.3 –3.9) were at higher risk of anaemia, whereas children of Scheduled Tribe (OR ¼ 4.5; 95% CI ¼ 2.1 – 10.5) and 3–5 years (OR ¼ 1.4; 95% CI ¼ 1.0 –2.0) were at risk for VAD. The prevalence of goitre was 9%. Conclusions: Micronutrient de?ciencies were found to be of public health signi?cance among rural children of West Bengal. Therefore, there is a need to initiate sustainable longterm interventions for prevention and control of micronutrient de?ciencies in children.