The Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) of year 1998 was the second round of WMS conducted in Ethiopia, like the previous one, focused on wide range of socioeconomic indicators like health, education, anthropometry, access to selected facilities/services, amenities and assets, which are vital inputs in the process of monitoring and evaluation of policies, particularly in poverty reduction strategies
Poverty is a major concern and an important issue in Ethiopia. It is a chronic problem exacerbated by war, draught and inappropriate policies. According to analyze of the combined 1995-1996 Household Budget Survey and the 1996 Welfare Monitoring Survey 45.5 percent of the population were falling the poverty line. About 47.5 percent of the rural population fell below the poverty line while the corresponding figure for the urban population was 33.2 percent.
As in the case of a number of African countries which undertook the Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA) program, the issue of welfare monitoring in Ethiopia arose as part of the Economic Reform Program (ERP) currently being undertaken in the country. The ERP specifically and strongly underlies the effects of the reform program on poverty and the analytical capacity of the government to monitor such effects. To this end, a Welfare Monitoring System (WMS) was set up by the government by mid 1994.
In view of the wider context of the problem, the establishment of the WMS, as justified above, is envisaged to consist major elements such as establishing an information system that provides a continuous picture of the poverty scenario in the country, indicate the impact of reform programs on the level of household welfare, establish follow-up procedures on the various programs and activities targeted towards poverty alleviation and conduct regular statistical surveys to assess in particular the efficiency of targeted programs.
The WMS places emphasis on six basic needs indicators. These are health, education, anthropometry, access to selected facilities/services, amenities and assets. However, the distribution of household domestic expenditure was obtained by recall interview with reference periods of the last month previous the day of the interview. These WMS data were classified by expenditure quintile and used as back ground variable for tabulation.
Objectives of the Welfare Monitoring System
The WMS which involves various ministries and the Central Statistical Authority (CSA) is established with the following objectives
a) Provide baseline data on existing poverty situation and establish a system of information gathering on relevant key indicators;
b) Identify poor and vulnerable groups that could be the focus of targeted intervention programs;
c) Undertake periodic surveys and researches to evaluate targeted programs;
d) Assess the short and medium term effects of macroeconomics and sectional policies and programs on the poor;
e) Produce conclusive reports and suggestions needed for due attention by the government and concerned implementing agencies.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Individual (including adult women aged 15 and above, children aged 5 and below)
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
The scope of Welfare Monitoring Survey includes:
- Area identification; collected information regarding area identification of respondents such as Region, Zone, Wereda (District), Town, etc.
- Economic and demographic characteristics of all household members
- Education; collected educational information of persons aged 5 years and above
- Health; collected information for all members of the households
- Housing amenities and services
- Access to facilities
- Household asset profile
- Major household expenditures
- Major sources of household income
The 1998 (1990 E.C.) Welfare Monitoring Survey covered the population in sedentary areas of the country on a sample basis excluding the non-sedentary population in Afar and Somali Regions. That is the survey covered the population on sedentary areas of all regions that included the rural and selected urban areas.
The survey covered all population in the selected samples except residents of collective quarters, homeless persons and foreigners.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Authority
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
The 1998 (1990 E.C) Welfare Monitoring Survey covered both urban and rural areas of the country, except six zones in Somali region and two zones in Afar region. For the purpose of the survey, the country was divided into three categories. Urban areas were divided into two broad categories taking into account sizes of their population. Rural areas were also grouped into one category.
Category I: All region capitals and five urban centers with a population of 100,000 and over were grouped in this category. Each urban center in this category was the survey domain (reporting level) for which separate survey results for major survey characteristics were reported.
Category II: Urban centers in the country other than the fifteen urban centers in category I were grouped in this category. There were four domains (reporting levels) in this category, namely;
a) Other urban Amhara (excluding Gondar, Bahr Dar, Dessie)
b) Other urban Oromiya (excluding Jima, Nazreth, Debre Zeit)
c) Other urban SNNP (excluding Awasa)
d) Other urban (excluding all urban centers in Category I and those in a, b and c in Category II)
Other than the nineteen domains (reporting levels) defined in Category I and Category II, three additional domains can be constructed by combining basic domains form the first two categories. These domains are:
i) Urban Amhara
ii) Urban Oromiya
iii) Urban SNNP
Category III: Rural areas of 44 zones and 5 special weredas in seven regions and rural areas of Gambella, Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa regions were grouped in this category each of which were the survey domains (reporting levels). The seven regions are Tigray, Afar, Amhara, Oromiya, Somali, Benishangul-Gumuz and SNNP.
All in all 54 basic rural domains (reporting levels) including total rural (country level) were defined for the survey. In addition to the above urban and rural domains, survey results can be reported at regional and country levels by aggregating the survey results for corresponding urban and rural areas.
Definition of the survey domains was based on both technical and resource considerations. More specifically, sample size for the domains were determined to enable provision of major indicators with reasonable precision subject to the resources that were available for the survey.
SELECTION SCHEME AND SAMPLE SIZS
Category I: Stratified two-stage sample design was used to select the sample in which the primary sampling units (PSUs) were enumeration areas (EAs). Sample EAs from each domain were selected using systematic probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained from the 1994 Population and Housing Census. In this category, a total pf 325 urban EAs werw selected. Within each sample EA, fresh list of households was prepared at the beginning of the survey's field work and the survey questionnaire was administered to 25 systematically selected households within each of the sample EAs.
Category II: Three-stage stratified sample design was adopted to select the sample from the domains in category II. The PSUs were urban centers selected using Systematic Probability Proportional to size; size being number of households obtained from the 1994 population and housing census. The secondary sampling units (SSUs) were EAs which were selected using Systematic Probability Proportional to Size; size being number of households obtained from the 1994 population and housing census. In this category, a total of 122 EAs were selected. Number of sample SSUs selected form each of the sample urban centers was determined by proportional allocation to their household population form the 1994 Population and Housing Census. Ultimately, 25 households within each of the sample EAs were selected systematically from a fresh list of household prepared at the beginning of the survey's field work for the administration of the survey questionnaire.
Category III: A stratified two-stage sample design was used to select the sample in which the PSus were EAs. Sample from each domain was selected using systematic probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained from the 1994 Population and Housing Census. A total of 1380 rural EAs were selected from category III. Within each sample EA a fresh list of households was prepared at the beginning of the survey's fieldwork and the survey questionnaire was administered to 25 systematically selected household per sample EA.
Note: The distribution of the sample units by domain (reporting levels) and category is given in the 1998 Welfare Monitoring Survey report in Summary Tables 2A and 2B.
A total of 1827 Enumeration Areas (1380 in rural and 447 in urban) were selected to be covered in the survey in all regions. Nevertheless, 19 EAs in rural were not covered in the survey due to various reasons. Thus, the survey succeeded to cover 1808 (99.0 %) of the selected EAs.
With regard to ultimate sampling units, it was planned to cover a total of 45,675 households (34,500 in rual and 11,175 in urban areas) all over the country. The response rate was found to be 98.8 percent (98.5 % or 33,981 households in rural and 99.7 % percent or 11,142 households in urban areas).
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
In the actual data collection process, a total of 2012 enumerators and 436 field supervisors were involved with an average supervisor-enumerator ratio of 1 to 5 in general. The actual data collection in the field lasted for seven days. For this operation a total of 123 four-wheel-drive vehicles were deployed all over the branch offices. A regular supervision was undertaken at various levels. At the beginning of the fieldwork, management staff from the head office visited all branch statistical offices and emphasized the importance of the survey and the expected quality of the data in addition to discussions on issues of administrative nature. Following the commencement of the fieldwork, close supervision exercise was pursued which included spot checking, re-interviewing and a thorough scrutiny of filled-in questionnaires by field supervisors. Further supervision was also undertaken by the technical staff of the branch offices
Data Collection Notes
Field Organization and Supervision
All the 22 branch statistical offices of the CSA participated in the survey undertaking, especially in organizing the second stage training, in deploying the field staff to their respective sites of assignment, and retrieving completed questionnaires and submitting them to the head office for data processing. They were also responsible in administering the financial and logistic aspect of the survey within the areas of their assignment.
To accomplish the data collection operation, all enumerators were supplied with the necessary equipment (infant weighting scales and height measurement boards for anthropometric measurement) at the completion of the training. It is to be mentioned, that the WMS was conducted in conjunction with the 1998 Health and Nutrition Survey. Thus the data obtained from anthropometric measurement were used and analyzed in both surveys.
In the data collection of the survey, a total of 2012 enumerators and 436 field supervisors were involved with an average supervisor-enumerator ratio of 1-to-5. The data collection in the field lasted for seven days.
To assist the data collection activities in deployment, supervision and retrieval of completed questionnaires, a total of 123 four-wheel vehicles were used.
During the survey fieldwork, close and regular supervision was undertaken at various levels. At the beginning of field work, the management staff from the head office visited all Statistical branch offices and discussed the objectives, importance of the survey, the expected quality of the data and some other related issues with supervisors and enumerators. Immediately after the commencement of fieldwork, close supervision was made by supervisors who made spot checking, re-interviewing and a thorough scrutiny of filled questionnaires to ensure that the data collection activities are taking place according to the instructions given. In addition to this, supervision was made by the trainers and branch statistical office heads.
Training of Field Staff
For this survey the training program of enumerators, supervisors and other field and office staff was conducted at two stages. The first stage was conducted at the head office of CSA, in Addis Ababa. The participants were selected from professionals and sub-professionals with long time experiences, branch office heads and their assistants who were to train enumerators and supervisors during the second stage of training conducted at the branch statistical offices.
The training at the head office, which lasted for five days, consisted of theoretical discussions on how to complete the questionnaire as well as practical interview of households and/or household members. The objectives of practical interviewing of households were two-fold. Firstly, it enabled to assess how well the theoretical class discussions were understood by all participants so that they could convey the same massage to enumerators and supervisors. The second objective was to examine the difficulty which would likely be encountered during actual fieldwork.
Thorough discussions were made after field practice. The discussions were intended to help exchange experiences among participants and pinpoint the areas of the survey questions which need more care and attention. This practical fieldwork was conducted both at the head office and at branch offices in selected urban and rural areas.
The second stage training was undertaken at the branch statistical offices. The trainers were those professional and sub-professional staffs who were trained at the head office. The second stage training lasted for at least seven days and also consisted of both theoretical class discussions and practical field practice.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Basically there are two types of questionnaires; one referring to individual household members and the other pertaining to households in general.
1. Schedules on individual basis are questionnaires on basic population characteristics, health, education, on nutritional status of the children (anthropometric measurements) and immunization.
2. Household-based questionnaires include modules on housing amenities, accessibility of basic facilities such as food market, post office and telephone, possession of household asset and schedule on living standard indicators with respect to basic necessities (food, clothing and shelter). Proxy measure of household expenditure is also included in WMS questionnaires to hint at the economic situation of households
Here are list of forms of the questionnaires:
Form 1: Economic and Demographic Characteristics of the Households
Form 2A: Health
Form 2B: Education
Form 3A: Housing Amenities
Form 3B: Access to Facilities
Form 4A: Property and Land
Form 4B: Household Assets
Form 5A: Household Expenditure
Form 5B: Household Income
After the completion of the fieldwork the filled-in questionnaires were retrieved from the branch statistical offices for data processing. The first stage of data processing activity was begun by training data editors and coders at the head office by subject matter department professional staffs. About 55 editors-coders and 8 verifiers took part in the manual editing, coding and verification activities, which lasted for about a month. Edited and coded questionnaires then captured into computer using data entry program which was develop by data processing department. The data entry activities took about 15 days using 28 computers and as many data encoders.
Computer data cleaning, attaching weighting coefficients to the data and tabulation activities were carried out procedurally by the professional staff from involved departments at the head office. The Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) software was used for data entry, consistency checks and tabulation of survey results.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Details of the estimation procedures, standard errors and coefficients of variations of selected variables is presented in Annex I of the 1998 Welfare Monitoring Survey report.
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected
For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research,
It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
The following statement must be used as citation:
"Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA). Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS 1998)"
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02: Adopted from DDI (DDI-ETH-CSA-WMS-1998-v1.1) that was done by Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia.