The Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) of year 2004 was the fourth round of WMS conducted in Ethiopia focused on wider range of socio-economic indicators that reflect the non-income dimensions of poverty. The 2004 WMS has been improved to accommodate users' need as much as possible. New features in the current survey included shocks and coping mechanisms, HIV/AIDS related information, estimates of orphan and foster children, major prevailing diseases, plot size and other additional variables.
The level and distribution of poverty in Ethiopia is extensive. According to the results obtained from the 1995/96 and the 1999/2000 Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey and Welfare Monitoring Survey of the Central Statistical Authority (CSA), about 44 percent of the total populations (45 percent in rural areas and 37 percent in urban areas) are found to be below poverty line. The country together with development partners, as a result, has put poverty reduction strategies high on the agenda and working firmly on the implementation program since the beginning of this decade. With firm dedication to reduce poverty, the government has prepared its poverty reduction program entitled “Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program” in 2002. The strategy has been implemented over the past three years.
In light of the plan to reduce poverty over time, strong system of monitoring and evaluation has been put in place. Consequently, the issue of welfare monitoring in Ethiopia arose as part of the Economic Reform Program (ERP). The ERP specifically and strongly underlies to see the effects of the reform program on poverty and building the analytical capacity of the government to monitor and evaluate such effects. To this end, the government has established a Welfare Monitoring System in 1995 to oversight the following major activities:
- establish an information system that provides a continuous picture of the poverty scenario in the country;
- indicate the impact of reform programs on the level of household welfare;
- establish follow-up procedures on the various programs and activities targeted towards poverty reduction; and
- conduct regular statistical surveys to assess, in particular, the efficiency of targeted programs.
The CSA and WMU of Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED) has been the key actors in the M&E system in place by way of producing, analyzing and disseminating poverty related data and results. The program has been supported by the World Bank IDA Credit and the Norwegian Trust Fund.
In line with strengthening the established M&E system of the government, the CSA and WMU of MoFED had also submitted a financing requirement proposal (entitled: Strengthening Data Collection, Analysis and Dissemination on Poverty Monitoring and the MDGs) to the Development Assistant Group (DAG). Following the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between MoFED, CSA and the donors, various implementation activities have also been carried out.
In order to meet the data needs of the Welfare Monitoring System, the CSA has been conducting the two surveys that provide poverty related data: Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey (HICES) and Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) since 1995/96. The HICE and WMS surveys provide crucially useful information for the designing and monitoring and evaluation of the country’s poverty reduction strategy: Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP), the various socioeconomic policies and programs and hence monitor the progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The two surveys are inseparable and provide basic data that reflect the standard of living of households, individuals and the society as a whole.
The WMS focuses on wider range of socioeconomic indicators that reflect the nonincome dimensions of poverty. The 2004 survey have been improved to accommodate users needs as much as possible. New features in the current survey include shocks and coping mechanisms, HIV/AIDS related information, estimates of orphan and foster children, major prevailing diseases, plot size and other additional variables.
The main objectives of the WMS are to provide data that enable understand the nonincome aspects of poverty and has the following objectives:
- to assess the level, extent and distribution of non-income poverty;
- helps assess the quality of life of households/individuals;
- to provide basic data that enables design, monitor and evaluate the impact of socioeconomic policies and programs on households/individuals living standard;
- provide basic indicators on households’ and individuals’ living standard with respect to basic needs including:
-> Education, Health, Child nutrition and care, Access to and utilization of basic facilities, Housing and housing amenities (drinking water, sanitation, energy, etc.), Household assets, Selected indicators of living standard, Vulnerability (Shocks and coping mechanisms, Food security, etc.), and HIV/AIDS and basic population characteristics.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Individuals (including adult women aged 15 and above, children aged 5 and below)
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
Version 04 of the Welfare Monitoring Survey is based on the year the survey was first carried out, it is also the year of data collection. Survey year was changed from 2005 to 2004 on the following metadata fields: title, abbreviation, and citation requirements. On external resources, the titles of the reports, technical documents and questionnaires were also changed.
The scope of Welfare Monitoring Survey includes:
- Area identification
- Economic and demographic characteristics
- Anthropometry, immunization and child care
- Housing amenities
- Basic facilities access, utilization and satisfaction
- Asset ownership
- Selected indicators of households living conditions
- HIV/AIDS related indicators
The year 2004 Welfare Monitoring Survey covered all rural and urban area of the country except the non-sedentary areas in Afar and Somali Regional States. Excluded are three zones of Afar Region, six zones of Somali Region and all zones of Gambella Region.
The survey covered households in the selected samples except residents of collective quarters, homeless persons and foreigners.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Authority
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The World Bank
Funding and Technical Assistance
Norwegian Trust Fund
The list of all households obtained from the 2001/02 Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration (EASE) is used as a frame to select the sample EAs in the rural areas of the country. In urban areas, on the other hand, the frame, consisting of households by EA obtained from the 2004 Ethiopian Urban Economic Establishment Census (EUEEC), is used to select sample sites for the 2004 welfare monitoring survey. The frame from which sample households were selected was based on a fresh list of households taken at the beginning of the survey period in each of the selected urban and rural EAs.
For the purpose of the survey the country was divided into three broad categories including rural category, major urban centers category and other urban centers category.
Category I - Rural: This category consists of the rural areas of 58 zones and special Weredas, which are considered as zones, in 7 regions of the country. Harari region and Addis Ababa City Counsil and Dire Dawa City council were treated independently. Each zone/special Wereda of a region was considered to be a survey domain (i.e. reporting level) for which the major findings of the survey are reported. Rural Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa each were considered as separate reporting levels.
Category I totally comprises 61 reporting levels. A stratified two-stage cluster sample design in which the primary sampling units (PSUs) were EAs was used to select samples. Twelve households per sample EA were selected as a second Stage Sampling Unit (SSU) to which survey questionnaire finally were administered to the members of sample households.
Category II - Major urban centers: In this category all regional capitals (except Gambella region) and four other major urban centers that have relatively larger population sizes were included. Each of the 14 urban center in this category is taken us a reporting level. Since there is a high variation in the standards of living of the residents of these urban centers (that may have a significant impact on the final results of the survey), each urban center was further stratified into the following three sub-strata.
Sub-stratum 1: Households having a relatively high standard of living
Sub-stratum 2: Households having a relatively medium standard of living
Sub-stratum 3: Households having a relatively low standard of living
In this category too, a stratified two-stage cluster sample design was adopted to select the primary sampling units (the EAs) and the Second Stage Unit. Allocation of sample EAs to a reporting level among the above mentioned strata were accomplished in proportion to the number of EAs in each stratum. Sixteen households from each of the primary sampling units (EAs) in each reporting level were then selected as a Second Stage Unit (SSU).
Category III - Other urban centers: Urban centers in the country other than those under category II were grouped under this category. A domain of other urban centers is formed for each region (excluding Gambella region) and seven reporting levels were formed in this category. However, there is no domain in category III for Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa as they do not have urban centers other than those grouped under category II.
Unlike the above two categories, a stratified three stage cluster sample design was adopted to select samples from this category. The primary sampling units were urban centers and the second stage sampling units were EAs. Sixteen households from each of the selected EAs were finally selected as a third stage sampling unit.
Sample Size and Selection Scheme
Category I: A totally of 2,016 EAs and 24,192 households were selected from this category. Sample EAs of each reporting level were selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) with systematic sampling techniques; size being number of household obtained from the 2001/2 Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration. Twelve households per EA were systematically selected from the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey.
Category II: In this category 485 EAs and 7,760 households were selected. Sample EAs from each reporting level in this category were also selected using probability proportional to size systematic sampling; size being number of households obtained from the 2004 EUEEC. Sixteen households in each of the selected EAs were systematically selected from the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey.
Category III: One hundred twenty-seven urban centers, 275 EAs and 4,400 households were selected in this category. Urban centers from each domain as well as EAs in each urban center were selected systematically using probability proportional to size; size being the number of households obtained from the 2004 EUEEC. Sixteen households in each of the selected EAs ultimately were systematically selected from the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey.
In total, including region rural, region urban and country domains, a total of 148 reporting levels were formed under this design. Annex IV provides distribution of planned and covered samples by region.
In the rural part of the country it was planned to cover 2,016 enumeration areas (EAs) and 24,192 households.
The response rate is highly satisfactory. Only two EAs and 39 households (owing to various reasons) were not covered in this survey. The ultimate response rate in rural areas is, therefore, 99.9 percent for EAs and 99.8 percent for households. Regarding urban parts of the country all the planned 760 EAs (100 percent ) and 99.9 percent of the 12,160 planned sample households were successfully covered in the survey.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
A regular supervision, which also is compulsory activity in CSA surveys, was undertaken at various levels to ensure the quality of the data. The permanent field supervisors were assigned to take care of the day-to-day supervision activities. Branch office statisticians and heads of the branch offices were also involved in a regular supervision. Most of the professionals and sub professionals that were engaged in training the field staff were also deployed on the actual field supervision. Management group from the head office has also made a field visit to oversight the operation as whole.
Data Collection Notes
Training of Field staff:
Training was held in two stages. The first stage was training of trainers and was conducted at the CSA Head Office. A total of 140 participants including professionals and sub-professionals from the Head Office, heads of the branch offices and the respective statisticians from each branch office were trained at this stage. The second stage training involved training of about 4600 field staff consisting of about 3900 enumerators and more than 700 supervisors and was conducted at all branch offices of the CSA. The training at the head office lasted for about 10 days focusing on theoretical discussions on concepts, definitions, and principles of interview and how to complete questionnaires the training also had focused in practical sessions which include mock interviews and two-days field practice both in rural and urban areas. The objectives of practical interviewing of households were two fold. First, it enabled to assess how well the theoretical class discussions were understood by all participants so that they could convey the same massage to enumerators and supervisors. The second objective was to examine the practical difficulties pertaining to the various socioeconomic groups, which would likely be encountered during the actual fieldwork. The second stage training was undertaken at the branch offices and took about 12 days. The training was more detailed than the first stage in both theoretical and practical aspects to ensure the full competence of the field staff in collecting the required information. The trainers were professional and sub-professional staffs that were trained at the head office.
Field Organization, Data Collection and Supervision:
The CSA branch offices led by the Field Operations Department at the Head Office did the major work of the field organization. All the 25 branch offices of the CSA (Excluding Gambela) had fully participated in the survey undertaking, starting from recruitment of field staff, organizing the second stage training, in deploying the field staff to their respective sites of assignment, field supervision and retrieval of the completed questionnaires to the head office where the data processing activities take place. They were also responsible for administering financial and logistics aspects of the survey. Additionally, line government organizations especially Kebele's had also a significant role in facilitating the fieldwork. Writing administrative letters that introduce the work and the enumerators to the local people particularly the sample households, provision of field guides, etc were tasks of the local government units.
WMS data collection has taken place from 24 June to 3 July 2004. A total of 3873 enumerators and 708 field supervisors with an average supervisor-enumerator ratio of 1 to 5 together with about 75 technical staff from the branch offices were involved in the field work. Nearly 196 four-wheel-drive vehicles were deployed all over the country to undertake the fieldwork.
Both interview and objective measurements were introduced to collect data from households and individuals. Interview method was used to gather information related to population characteristics, education, health, household based modules such as accessibility of facilities, household amenities, etc. Objective method was used in assessment of child nutritional status. Which involves anthropometric measurements (weight and height measurements) of the under five children.. Information was collected using questionnaires having nine modules following both subjective and objective methods of data collection.
Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The 2004 Welfare Monitoring Survey used structured questionnaires to collect socio-economic information from selected sample households.
List of forms of in the questionnaire:
- Form 1: Economic and Demographic Characteristics
- Form 2: Educational Status
- Form 3: Heath
- Form 4: Anthropometry, Immunization and Child Care
- Form 5: Housing Amenities
- Form 6: Basic Facilities Access, Utilization and Satisfaction
- Form 7: Asset Ownership
- Form 8: Selected Indicators of Households Living Conditions
- Form 9: HIV/AIDS Related Indicators
The data processing activities were undertaken at the head office. The first stage of data processing activities was training of data editors and coders which was held at the head office by subject matter department staff. About 55 editors/coders and 39 verifiers were engaged in the manual editing, coding and verification activities, which lasted for about 36 days. Data entry took about 37 days using 125 computers and as many data encoders.
Machine data cleaning, estimation with proper sampling weights and tabulation activities were carried out procedurally by the professional staff from involved departments at the head office. The Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) complemented by CSPRO software were used for data entry, consistency checks and tabulation of survey results.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Details of estimation procedures and standard errors and coefficients of variations for the estimates of selected variables are presented in Annex II & Annex III of the 2004 Welfare Monitoring Survey report.
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected
For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research,
It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Statistical Agency. Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) 2004. Ref. ETH_2004_WMS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Development Data Group
The World Bank
Editing of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 04 (December 2017)
The following changes were made:
- Geographic coverage
- Citation requirements
Version 03 (March 2016)
Version 02: Adopted from DDI (DDI-ETH-CSA-WMS-2004-v1.1) that was done by Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia.