UNICEF assists countries in collecting and analyzing data in order to fill data gaps for monitoring the situation of children and women through its international household survey initiative the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS).
MICS surveys are typically carried out by government organizations, with the support and assistance of UNICEF and other partners. Technical assistance and training for the surveys is provided through a series of regional workshops where experts from developing countries are trained on various aspects of MICS (questionnaire content, sampling and survey implementation, data processing, data quality and data analysis, and report writing and dissemination).
Since the mid-1990s, the MICS has enabled many countries to produce statistically sound and internationally comparable estimates of a range of indicators in the areas of health, education, child protection and HIV/AIDS. MICS findings have been used extensively as a basis for policy decisions and programme interventions, and for the purpose of influencing public opinion on the situation of children and women around the world.
MICS1 (1995) - The MICS was originally developed in response to the World Summit for Children to measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of mid-decade goals. The first round of MICS was conducted around 1995 in more than 60 countries.
MICS2 (2000) - A second round of surveys was conducted in 2000 (around 65 surveys), and resulted in an increasing wealth of data to monitor the situation of children and women. For the first time it was possible to monitor trends in many indicators and set baselines for other indicators.
MICS3 (2005-2006) - The third round of MICS, which was carried out in over 50 countries in 2005-06, has been an important data source for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals with 21 MDG indicators collected through MICS3 (particularly indicators related to health, education and mortality). MICS3 was also a monitoring tool for other international goals including the World Fit for Children, the UNGASS targets on HIV/AIDS and the Abuja targets for malaria.
MICS4 (2009-2011) - In response to an increased demand for data all over the world, starting from MICS4, UNICEF will be prepared to provide assistance to countries at more frequent intervals - every three years instead of every five years. This will provide the opportunity for countries to capture rapid changes in key indicators, particularly the MDGs.
The 2006 Belize Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has as its primary objectives:
• To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Belize;
• To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established in the Millennium Declaration, the goals of A World Fit For Children (WFFC), and other internationally agreed upon goals, as a basis for future action;
• To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Belize and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Children under 5
Notes on the Belize survey:
1. The marriage module was not included in the survey. Indicators which require information on marital status can therefore not be calculated. These indicators are: 'Contraceptive prevalence', 'Unmet need for family planning', 'Demand satisfied for family planning', 'Age at first sex among young people' and 'Age-mixing among sexual partners'.
2. In these datasets, for the variable "Ethnicity grouped" (HC1Brev), 2 households have been recoded to missing, instead of system missing. The final report which can also be found on this website was produced using an earlier set of datasets in which this correction had not been made. Therefore the tables constructed from these datasets may show some slight differences compared to those found in the published final report.
The 2006 Belize Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey covered the following topics:
- Household Listing
- Water and Sanitation
- Household Characteristics
- Child Discipline
- Salt Iodization
- Child Mortality
- Tetanus Toxoid
- Maternal and Newborn Health
- Contraception and Unmet Need
- Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence
- Sexual Behaviour
CHILDREN UNDER 5
- Birth Registration and Early Learning
- Child Development
- Vitamin A
- Care of Illness
Producers and sponsors
United Nations Children’s Fund
The sample for the Belize Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was designed to provide estimates on a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the 6 districts: Corozal, Orange Walk, Belize, Cayo, Stann Creek and Toledo. The sample was selected in two stages: (i) the selection of 3 enumeration districts (EDs) within each of the sampling region designated as Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) and (ii) the systematic selection of 20 households within each PSU. The sample is self-weighting with each household in the sample universe being given an equal probability of being represented in the sample. A total of 2,400 households were sampled countrywide. However, there were some non-interviews which were uneven across geographical areas. For reporting national level results, sample weights were used.
Of the 2,400 households selected for the sample, 2,068 were found to be occupied. Of these, 1,832 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 88.6 percent. In the interviewed households, 1,828 women (age 15-49) were identified. Of these, 1,675 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 91.6 percent. In addition, 835 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 796 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 95.3 percent. Overall response rates of 81.2 and 84.5 are calculated for the women’s and under-5’s interviews respectively.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Training and Fieldwork
Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 12 days from the 23rd of January to the 3rd of February, 2006. The editors and field supervisors attended an extra day of training. Training sessions took place in four different locations: Belize City, Orange Walk, San Ignacio and Dangriga Town. In order to ensure standardization of the training a training manual was used at all training sites and all concerns or queries were reported to the Chief Statistician who after consultation responded by memo to trainers at all sites. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, practical tests, mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions and field practice of the questionnaires and anthropometry.
The data were collected by 9 work teams; each was comprised of 4 interviewers, one driver, one editor/measurer and a field supervisor. Fieldwork began February 2006 and concluded in March 2006.
Three questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) a household questionnaire which was used to collect
information on all de jure household members, the household, and the dwelling; 2) a women's
questionnaire administered in each household to all women aged 15-49 years; and 3) an under-5 questionnaire, administered to mothers or caretakers of all children under 5 living in the household. The questionnaires included the following modules:
The Household Questionnaire included the following modules:
o Household Listing
o Water and Sanitation
o Household Characteristics
o Child Discipline
o Salt Iodization
The Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women aged 15-49 years living in the households, and included the following modules:
o Child Mortality
o Tetanus Toxoid
o Maternal and Newborn Health
o Contraception and Unmet Need
o Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence
o Sexual Behaviour
The Questionnaire for Children Under-Five was administered to mothers or caretakers of children under-5 years of age2 living in the households. Normally, the questionnaire was administered to mothers of under-5 children; in cases when the mother was not listed in the household roster, a primary caretaker for the child was identified and interviewed. The questionnaire included the following modules:
o Birth Registration and Early Learning
o Child Development
o Vitamin A
o Care of Illness
The questionnaires are based on the MICS3 model questionnaire. The MICS3 model questionnaires were adapted and pre-tested during December 2006. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording of the questionnaires.
Data were entered using the CSPro software. The data were entered on two microcomputers and carried out by 2 data entry operators and a data entry supervisor over a five-week period. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were entered twice and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS3 project and adapted to Belize's questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began in March 2006 and finished in April 2006.
Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, version 10, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF for this purpose.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The sample of respondents selected in the Belize Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey is only one of the samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey results.
The following sampling error measures are presented for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator - Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistics will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (p + 2.se or p – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national total, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. Three of the selected indicators are based on households, 8 are based on household members, 13 are based on women, and 15 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented are in the form of proportions.
Note: See detailed sampling error tables in APPENDIX C of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Data Quality Tables
- Age distribution of household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed under-5s
- Age distribution of under-5 children
- Heaping on ages and periods
- Percentage of observations missing information for selected questions and indicators (Under-5 uestionnaire, weighted), Country, Year
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
- Distribution of women by time since last birth
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX D of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Statistical Institute of Belize
MICS Programme Manager
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Survey datasets are distributed at no cost for legitimate research.
Interested users are requested to provide an e-mail address, their name, affiliation and type of institution and country of residence. A short description of the objectives of the research project must also be provided
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Email: email@example.com <mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org>
Global MICS Coordinator
Statistics and Monitoring
Division of Policy and Practice
Three United Nations Plaza
New York, NY 10017
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- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
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The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.