National Sample Survey 2007-2008 (64th round) - Schedule 10.2 - Employment, Unemployment and Migration Particulars
Labor Force Survey [hh/lfs]
The National Sample Survey (NSS) was set up by the Government of India in 1950 to collect socio-economic data employing scientific sampling methods. Its sixty-fourth round was implemented from July 2007 to June 2008.
The 64th round of NSS is earmarked for survey on "Employment-Unemployment and Migration", "Participation and expenditure in Education" and "Household Consumer Expenditure". NSS 55th round (July 1999 - June 2000) and 49th round (January - June 1993) were the two latest rounds where migration was taken up as one of the subjects. Detailed information on education was collected for the last time in NSS 52nd round (July 1995 - June 1996), prior to which such information were collected during the 47th round of NSS (July - December 1991).
During this round, the following schedules of enquiry will be canvassed:
- Schedule 0.0 : list of households
- Schedule 1.0 : household consumer expenditure
- Schedule 10.2 : employment & unemployment and migration particulars
- Schedule 25.2 : participation and expenditure in education
The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) has conducted a number of surveys on employment and unemployment to assess the volume and structure of employment and unemployment, starting from the 9th round (May-September, 1955). Since the 1970’s, based on the concepts and definitions recommended by the Dantwala committee, seven detailed surveys on employment and unemployment have been undertaken once in every five years in the 27th (October 1972-September 1973), 32nd (July 1977-June 1978), 38th (January-December 1983), 43rd (July 1987-June 1988), 50th (July 1993-June 1994), 55th (July 1999-June 2000), and 61st (July 2004-June 2005) rounds. In addition, to meet the need for an annual series of key indicators on employment and unemployment, data on selected items on employment and unemployment particulars of the household members were collected through the annual survey on household consumer expenditure (Schedule 1.0) from the 45th round (July 1989-June 1990) of NSS. In the annual rounds, ‘usual activity status’ and ‘current weekly activity status’ of the household members, along with the industry of work (at 2 digit level of NIC code) only were collected in the demographic block of the consumer expenditure schedule.
To meet Planning Commission’s requirement for collection of employment and unemployment data on ‘current daily status’, a separate schedule on employment and unemployment, different from that used in the quinquennial rounds was canvassed in the 60th round survey of NSSO (January 2004 - June 2004). In the 60th round, particulars of employment and unemployment according to ‘usual activity status’, ‘current weekly activity status’ and ‘current daily activity status’ of the household members were collected. In the 62nd round survey, a separate schedule on employment and unemployment was also canvassed on the lines of the schedule canvassed in the 60th round.
Data on migration was first collected by the National Sample Survey in its 9th round as part of its enquiries on employment and unemployment followed by in the 11th & 12th rounds. In these rounds of surveys, migration particulars were collected for the persons in the labour force only. From the 13th round onwards, more detailed informa¬tion on internal migration was collected. In the 18th round, survey on internal migration was conducted on a much larger scale with a view to provide estimates comparable to the Census data on internal migration. In the NSS 28th round survey on birth, death & disability, migration particulars of the usual members of the sample house¬holds were also collected. In the 38th round, the collection of migration data was integrated with the regular quinquennial surveys on employment & unemployment. The same approach was followed during the 43rd round also. In NSS 49th round an integrated Schedule 1.2 providing comprehensive coverage of housing condition and migration was designed. In the sixth quinquennial survey of NSS (55th round: 1999-2000), along with the employment and unemployment particulars, data on migration particulars of the members of the sample households were collected through the ‘Employment and Unemployment’ schedule (viz., schedule 10). Data on migration particulars were not collected during the seventh quinquennial survey of NSS (61st round: 2004-05).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The survey covered the whole of the Indian Union except (i) Leh (Ladakh) and Kargil districts of Jammu & Kashmir (for central sample), (ii) interior villages of Nagaland situated beyond five kilometres of the bus route and (iii) villages in Andaman and Nicobar Islands which remain inaccessible throughout the year.
The following rules regarding the population to be covered were applied in listing of households and persons:
1. Under-trial prisoners in jails and indoor patients of hospitals, nursing homes etc., are to be excluded, but residential staff therein will be listed while listing is done in such institutions. The persons of the first category will be considered as normal members of their parent households and will be counted there. Convicted prisoners undergoing sentence will be outside the coverage of the survey.
2. Floating population, i.e., persons without any normal residence will not be listed. But households residing in open space, roadside shelter, under a bridge, etc., more or less regularly in the same place, will be listed.
3. Foreign nationals will not be listed, nor their domestic servants, if by definition the latter belong to the foreign national's household. If, however, a foreign national becomes an Indian citizen for all practical purposes, he or she will be covered.
4. Persons residing in barracks of military and paramilitary forces (like police, BSF, etc.) will be kept outside the survey coverage due to difficulty in conduct of survey therein. However, civilian population residing in their neighbourhood, including the family quarters of service personnel, are to be covered. Permission for this may have to be obtained from appropriate authorities.
5. Orphanages, rescue homes, ashrams and vagrant houses are outside the survey coverage. However, persons staying in old age homes, students staying in ashrams/ hostels and the residential staff (other than monks/ nuns) of these ashrams may be listed. For orphanages, although orphans are not to be listed, the persons looking after them and staying there may be considered for listing.
DEFINITION OF A HOUSEHOLD:
A group of persons normally living together and taking food from a common kitchen will constitute a household. It will include temporary stay-aways (those whose total period of absence from the household is expected to be less than 6 months) but exclude temporary visitors and guests (expected total period of stay less than 6 months). Even though the determination of the actual composition of a household will be left to the judgment of the head of the household, the following procedures will be adopted as guidelines.
(i) Each inmate (including residential staff) of a hostel, mess, hotel, boarding and lodging house, etc., will constitute a single-member household. If, however, a group of persons among them normally pool their income for spending, they will together be treated as forming a single household. For example, a family living in a hotel will be treated as a single household.
(ii) In deciding the composition of a household, more emphasis is to be placed on 'normally living together' than on 'ordinarily taking food from a common kitchen'. In case the place of residence of a person is different from the place of boarding, he or she will be treated as a member of the household with whom he or she resides.
(iii) A resident employee, or domestic servant, or a paying guest (but not just a tenant in the household) will be considered as a member of the household with whom he or she resides even though he or she is not a member of the same family.
(iv) When a person sleeps in one place (say, in a shop or in a room in another house because of space shortage) but usually takes food with his or her family, he or she should be treated not as a single member household but as a member of the household in which other members of his or her family stay.
(v) If a member of a family (say, a son or a daughter of the head of the family) stays elsewhere (say, in hostel for studies or for any other reason), he/ she will not be considered as a member of his/ her parent's household. However, he/ she will be listed as a single member household if the hostel is listed.
Producers and sponsors
National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO)
Outline of sample design:
A stratified multi-stage design has been adopted for the 64th round survey. The first stage units (FSU) was the 2001 census villages (Panchayat wards in case of Kerala) in the rural sector and Urban Frame Survey (UFS) blocks in the urban sector. However, for the newly declared towns and out growths (OGs) in census 2001 for which UFS had not yet been done, each individual town/ OG was considered as an FSU. The ultimate stage units (USU) was be households in both the sectors. In case of large FSUs i.e. villages/ towns/ blocks requiring hamlet-group (hg)/ sub-block (sb) formation, one intermediate stage was the selection of two hgs/ sbs from each FSU.
Sampling Frame for First Stage Units:
For the rural sector, the list of 2001 census villages (Panchayat wards for Kerala) constitute the sampling frame. For the urban sector, the list of latest available Urban Frame Survey (UFS) blocks and for non-UFS towns list of such towns/ OGs was considered as the sampling frame.
Within each district of a State/ UT, generally speaking, two basic strata were formed: i) rural stratum comprising of all rural areas of the district and (ii) urban stratum comprising of all the urban areas of the district. However, within the urban areas of a district, if there were one or more towns with population 10 lakhs or more as per population census 2001 in a district, each of them formed a separate basic stratum and the remaining urban areas of the district was considered as another basic stratum. For a few districts, particularly in case of Tamil Nadu, if total number of towns in the district for which UFS was not yet done exceeds certain number, all such towns taken together formed another basic stratum. Otherwise, they were merged with the UFS towns for stratification.
Sub-stratification in the Rural sector:
If "r" be the sample size allocated for a rural stratum, the number of sub-strata formed is "r/4?. The villages within a district as per frame were first arranged in ascending order of population. Then sub-strata 1 to "r/4" were demarcated in such a way that each sub-stratum comprised a group of villages of the arranged frame and have more or less equal population.
Sub-stratification in the Urban sector:
If "u" be the sample size for a urban stratum, "u/4" number of sub-strata were formed. The towns within a district, except those with population 10 lakhs or more and also the non-UFS towns, were first arranged in ascending order of population. Next, UFS blocks of each town were arranged by IV unit no. × block no. in ascending order. From this arranged frame of UFS blocks of all the towns, "u/4? number of sub-strata were formed in such a way that each sub-stratum had more or less equal number of FSUs. For towns with population 10 lakhs or more, the urban blocks were first arranged by IV unit no. × block no. in ascending order. Then "u/4? number of sub-strata were formed in such a way that each sub-stratum had more or less equal number of blocks. All non-UFS towns taken together within the district formed one sub-stratum.
Total sample size (FSUs):
12688 FSUs for central sample and 13624 FSUs for state sample have been allocated at all-India level.
Allocation of total sample to States and UTs:
The total number of sample FSUs is allocated to the States and UTs in proportion to population as per census 2001 subject to a minimum sample allocation to each State/ UT. While doing so, the resource availability in terms of number of field investigators had been kept in view.
Allocation of State/ UT level sample to rural and urban sectors:
State/ UT level sample was allocated between two sectors in proportion to population as per census 2001 with 1.5 weightage to urban sector subject to the restriction that urban sample size for bigger states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu etc. should not exceed the rural sample size. A minimum of 8 FSUs was allocated to each state/ UT separately for rural and urban areas. Further the State level allocation for both rural and urban have been adjusted marginally in a few cases to ensure that each stratum gets a minimum allocation of 4 FSUs.
More information on the sampling methodology is available in the document " Instructions to Field Staff - Volume-I"
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The period of survey was of one year duration starting on 1st July 2007 and ending on 30th June 2008. The survey period of this round was divided into four sub-rounds of three months' duration each as follows:
- sub-round 1 : July - September 2007
- sub-round 2 : October - December 2007
- sub-round 3 : January - March 2008
- sub-round 4 : April - June 2008
In the 64th round survey, a separate schedule on employment and unemployment (Schedule 10.2), with provision for collecting information on migration particulars, will be canvassed.
The broad structure of the employment and unemployment part of Schedule 10.2 will be the same as that of the schedule canvassed during the NSS 60th round with the following modifications:
a) Information on vocational training will not be collected.
b) Particulars of persons unemployed on all the 7 days will not be collected in the present round.
The scope for collecting information on migration particulars has been enlarged with the provision for collecting information on:
a) Migration particulars of the households which migrated to the place of enumeration during the last 365 days, such as location of last usual residence, pattern of migration and reason for migration.
b) Particulars of out-migrants who migrated out to other village/ town, from the household, any time in the past, such as present place of residence, reason for migration, period since leaving the household, whether presently engaged in any economic activity, whether sent remittances, number of times and amount of remittances sent during last 365 days.
c) Use of remittances received by the households during last 365 days from the members who migrated out any time in the past.
d) Migration particulars of the household members, as follows:
i. For the members whose place of enumeration is different from the last usual place of residence (upr): nature of movement, period since leaving last upr, particulars of last upr, usual activity status at the time of migration, reason for leaving last upr.
ii. For the household members who had stayed away for employment or in search of employment for a period of 30 days to 6 months: number of spells of duration of 15 days or more, destination for longest spell and industry of work, if worked, for the longest duration of work.
iii. Information on return migration.
For collecting and recording of household principal industry and industry of work of household members NIC-2004 will be used. It is important to note that the industry Divisions 96 and 97 of NIC-2004 will not be used for the purpose of collection of information on industry of activity. The entire activities described under Division 97 are not under the production boundary of Indian System of National Accounts (ISNA) and are not also considered as economic activities in the NSS survey. A part of the activities under Division 96 (viz., hunting and gathering, farming and the production of shelter), which is within the production boundary of ISNA, is also considered as economic activities in NSS surveys and the industry of these undifferentiated activities will be judged in the usual manner as is done now, by considering the industry in which major time is spent. Thus, this part of activities will get classified against the respective industries under divisions 01-14 relating to the primary sector or 45 relating to construction. The rest of Division 96 is outside the production boundary of ISNA and will not be considered as economic activity for the NSS survey.
Information on household principal occupation and on the type of occupation for the workers according to usual status and current status will be collected using 3-digit NCO-2004 codes.
It is to be noted that the existing activity status code 41 (casual wage labour in public works) has been split into two codes for assigning activity status codes as per current daily activity status and current weekly activity status, as follows:
a) worked as casual wage labour in public works other than National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG) public works - 41.
b) worked as casual wage labour in National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG) public works - 42.
However, as in the earlier NSS surveys on employment and unemployment, in the usual status activity status, code 41 will be used for casual wage labour in public works, which will include all types of public works and code 42 will not be applicable in the usual activity status.
SUMMARY DESCRIPTION OF THE SCHEDULE
The present round, Schedule 10.2 on employment-unemployment and migration particulars consists of 12 blocks, including sub-block 3.1.
The first three blocks, viz. Blocks 0, 1 and 2, are used to record identification of sample households and particulars of field operations, as is the common practice in usual NSS rounds.
Blocks 8, 9 and 10 are for recording the remarks of investigator/senior investigator, superintendent/senior superintendent and other supervisory officer, respectively.
Of the remaining blocks, Block 3 is for recording the household characteristics like household size, household industry, occupation, religion, social group, household type, land possessed, migration particulars of the households which migrated to the place of enumeration during the last 365 days, amount of remittances received and use of remittances by those households from which there were some out-migrants and monthly household consumer expenditure, etc.
Block 3.1 is for recording the particulars of out-migrants who migrated out from the household any time in the past.
Block 4 is for recording the demographic particulars, usual activity particulars, both principal and subsidiary, of all the household members.
The daily time disposition for different activities, for each of the seven days prior to the date of survey, along with the particulars of the activities, such as status, industry, operation (for rural areas only), etc. will be recorded for each of the household members in Block 5. For the regular wage/salaried employee and casual labourers, wage and salary earnings will also be collected in this block. Besides, the current weekly status (cws) will be derived in this block from the daily time disposition data.
In Block 6, information will be collected, from each household member, on whether stayed away from the village/town for a period of 30 days or more but less than 6 months during the last 365 days and whether the place of enumeration is different from the last upr. For those household members, who had stayed away for a period of 30 days or more but less than 6 months from a household, information will be collected regarding number of spells, destination during longest spell and if worked, industry of work at 2- digit level of NIC-2004 for the longest duration of work. Besides, for those household members whose last upr is different from the present place of enumeration, details will be collected such as whether a return migrant, nature of movement, period since leaving last usual place of residence, particulars of last usual place of residence, usual activity status at the time of migration, reason for migration, etc.
In block 7, 19 items have been put for collection of information on household consumer expenditure. The information on household consumer expenditure derived from this block will be used as classificatory variable for analysis of employment-unemployment and migration data.
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