The 1997-1998 Lao Expenditure and Consumption Survey (LECS 2) is the second LECS conducted in Lao PDR. It was carried out from March 1997 to February 1998, five years after the first LECS which was conducted in 1992-1993.
The Lao Expenditure and Consumption Survey is a comprehensive survey which measures consumption, income, own production in agriculture and household-related business, construction, access to services, social indicators, food (rice) intake and time use.
The objectives of the LECS are basically to provide,
- macro estimates for the National Accounts, both private consumption and household investments and income from agriculture and businesses
- consumption structure (weighing system) for the Consumer Price Index (CPI)
- estimates of labor force
- statistics on access to services
- statistics on nutrition
- statistics on poverty and income distribution
- statistics on time use
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The 1997-1998 Lao Expenditure and Consumption Survey covered the following topics:
- Household composition
- Labor force participation
- Health check, measurements of heights and weights (children)
- Possession of durables and assets values
- Housing conditions
- Construction activities
- Household business
- Health, evaluation of health, use of health services, health seeking behavior, health costs
- Purchases and selling of durables during the last 12 months
- Income and transfers
- Borrowing and lending
- Time spent recorded for a period of 24 hours in a sampled day for 22 activities
- Access to services
- General economic conditions
- Wages and prices
Producers and sponsors
Department of Statistics (DoS)
Ministry of Planning and Investment
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
A two-stage sampling scheme was used. At the first stage a sample of villages was selected by PPS sampling. The villages were stratified by province and within province by urban villages, rural villages with access to road and rural villages without access to road (54 strata). 25 villages were selected in each stratum. The sample of villages in each province was allocated randomly to a survey month so that each of the 12 survey months had approximately the same number of sample villages.In the second stage a systematic sample of 20 households was selected in each sample village. The selection was based on an updated list of households in the villages at the time of the survey.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Department of Statistics (DoS)
Services Division, Department of Statistics
The Statistics Law of Lao PDR guarantees that identities of respondents are kept confidential.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the data depositor.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified on public use data files.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the data depositor.
Authorization to use this data is granted to designated individuals in the concerned division of the Department of Statistics (DoS). Under no circumstances shall the authorized user reproduce, distribute, sell or lend the entire data or parts thereof to any other data user apart from himself or that of authorized employees in the DoS.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Lao PDR Department of Statistics (DoS). Lao PDR Expenditure and Consumption Survey (LECS2) 1997-1998. Dataset downloaded from [website/source] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.