UNICEF assists countries in collecting and analyzing data in order to fill data gaps for monitoring the situation of children and women through its international household survey initiative the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS).
MICS surveys are typically carried out by government organizations, with the support and assistance of UNICEF and other partners. Technical assistance and training for the surveys is provided through a series of regional workshops where experts from developing countries are trained on various aspects of MICS (questionnaire content, sampling and survey implementation, data processing, data quality and data analysis, and report writing and dissemination).
Since the mid-1990s, the MICS has enabled many countries to produce statistically sound and internationally comparable estimates of a range of indicators in the areas of health, education, child protection and HIV/AIDS. MICS findings have been used extensively as a basis for policy decisions and programme interventions, and for the purpose of influencing public opinion on the situation of children and women around the world.
MICS1 (1995) - The MICS was originally developed in response to the World Summit for Children to measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of mid-decade goals. The first round of MICS was conducted around 1995 in more than 60 countries.
MICS2 (2000) - A second round of surveys was conducted in 2000 (around 65 surveys), and resulted in an increasing wealth of data to monitor the situation of children and women. For the first time it was possible to monitor trends in many indicators and set baselines for other indicators.
MICS3 (2005-2006) - The third round of MICS, which was carried out in over 50 countries in 2005-06, has been an important data source for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals with 21 MDG indicators collected through MICS3 (particularly indicators related to health, education and mortality). MICS3 was also a monitoring tool for other international goals including the World Fit for Children, the UNGASS targets on HIV/AIDS and the Abuja targets for malaria.
MICS4 (2009-2011) - In response to an increased demand for data all over the world, starting from MICS4, UNICEF will be prepared to provide assistance to countries at more frequent intervals - every three years instead of every five years. This will provide the opportunity for countries to capture rapid changes in key indicators, particularly the MDGs.
This Draft Preliminary Report presents the initial results of the 2000 Lesotho End-Decade Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (EMICS). These results were derived from a nationally representative survey of households, women, and children. The main objectives of the survey were:
- to provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Lesotho at the end of the decade, and;
- to furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and as a basis for future action;
- to contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Lesotho and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Data downloaded from MICS2 website (www.childinfo.org) on May 24, 2011
Household Questionnaire: Household Information Panel, Household Listing Form, Education, Child Labour, Water and Sanitation, Salt Iodization, Disability .
Individual Women Questionnaire: Women’s Information Panel, Child Mortality, Tetanus Toxoid (TT), Maternal and Newborn Health, Contraceptive Use, HIV/AIDS.
Children Under Five Questionnaire: Birth Registration and Early Learning Module, Vitamin A , Breast Feeding, Care of Illness, Immunisation , Anthropometry Module.
The Lesotho MICS survey was a nationally representative survey of households, women, and children.
Producers and sponsors
Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Development Planning
United Nations Children's Fund
United Nations Children's Fund
The Bureau of Statistics provided the information that was utilised in constructing the 2000 Lesotho MICS, including the Rural Master Sampling Frame, the 1996 Population Census Frame, Urban Population Sampling Units File. Information availed through these documents included Enumeration Area (EA) Numbers, Number of Villages in the EAs, and the Number of Households. Table 2.0 in the Draft Report shows the characteristics of this constructed sampling frame. The 2000 Lesotho EMICS covered the whole country. Thus, the sample was designed to provide estimates of health indicators at four levels.The national level, the urban and rural levels, the regional level the district level. The largest sample size was regarded as the required sample size that would provide adequate information on all the indicators. It would have been ideal to maintain the distinction in the four ecological strata, however for practical reasons this was not possible. Senqu River Valley and the Mountains were combined, because having them reported separately, would have required a much larger sample to detect differences between the two. Two stage cluster sampling was applied in selecting the sample for the 2000 Lesotho EMICS exercise, using an updated sampling frame from the 1996 population census (see Table 2.0). A number of variables indicators and assumptions were taken into consideration when determining the sample size for the 2000 Lesotho EMICS. These included:
- The number of households by district, both urban and rural
- Ecological considerations were employed in the rural areas
- Measles was used as a key indicator
- Design effect of 2 for most variables
- Level of estimation. In addition to national estimates, district estimates for comparison were required.
- The error margins were approximately 10 percent for district level data and five percent for national level data
Thus, the ecological strata were used for the ten districts, which were the main domains. Enumeration areas were the first stages of selecting sampling units on a systematic basis. Selection of primary sampling units was from each of the four ecological zones in the rural and urban areas. The second stage involved a systematic selection of twenty (20) households to cover the entire selected village of the selected enumeration areas. Consequently, 380 PSUs were identified, from which in each PSU twenty households were systematically selected, to give an expected sample of 7,600 households.
The systematic selection of the households involved a listing procedure, where all the households in the selected village were listed. A systematic sample was to be selected and interviewed. To achieve this two- (2) enumerators were selected and assigned to each village to undertake the listing of households and were provided with a map or a sketch showing the boundaries of the areas under consideration.
Once the listing was accomplished the supervisor collected the completed household listing forms (Form 1 - see Appendix C) and together with the enumerator systematically drew a sample of twenty (20) households from each selected village.
Overall the household response rate is about 99.7 percent, the eligible women’s response rate is 93.6 percent, and that of under five children is 98.0 percent. This are higher than the 90 percent response rates normally expected from surveys similar to the 2000 Lesotho EMICS. In respect of the households, the planned sample was to select and interview 7,600 households. Based on this planned figure the response rate would be a slightly lower 97.4 percent, but still higher than the base 90 percent for similar surveys. One can therefore conclude that the 2000 Lesotho EMICS had a good response rate and its results would be, all things considered, reliable.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Field staff was trained for five days in early March 2000. As part of the training a pilot test was conducted for a further five days. This was between the 13th to the 17th of March 2000. Eighty persons, comprising 65 enumerators and 15 supervisors, were involved. In this exercise, a dummy run of the actual survey was done. Listing and sampling procedures as well as the process of questionnaire administration were tested. Supervisors made notes of the issues identified during the pilot survey and a session was held with the enumerators to correct any shortcomings. Questionnaire administration time was about sixty (60) minutes per questionnaire. Fifteen teams collected data; each comprised of four interviewers, one driver, and supervisor. The MICS Co-ordinator provided overall supervision. UNICEF Programme Officers and their GOL counterparts strengthened the overall supervision. The fieldwork begun in March 2000 and was concluded in May 2000.
The questionnaire applied in the 2000 Lesotho EMICS comprised a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women aged 15 – 49 and children under age five. The questionnaires were based on the MICS model questionnaire with additional modules. In all the following modules and panels constituted the 2000 Lesotho EMICS questionnaire5. The questionnaire was translated into the Sesotho Language. A pretest of the questionnaire was performed on the 21st of January 2000. It involved two teams of three each supervised by the National Co-ordinator, EMICS and the MICS Consultant. The pretest was done in Ha Foso Village of Berea district, which was selected for its accessibility to Maseru. Questionnaires were pretested for questionnaire administration time, key questions were tested for reliability and consistency and last but not least the logistics for successful questionnaire administration were tested. Based on the findings of this pretest, modifications to the questionnaire were made in respect of the wording and the translation as well as instructions to the enumerators aimed at ensuring proper questionnaire administration. Selection of the interview households was randomly done.
Data was entered on twenty-two microcomputers using the IMPS Software. All the questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under MICS and adapted to the Lesotho questionnaire were applied. Data processing began in July 2000 and was completed in October 2000. Data entry was accomplished through the IMPS software. Customised applications were included within the software that performed range and consistency checks.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors on the other hand can be evaluated statistically. Consider the fact that the 2000 Kingdom of Lesotho MICS Sample is only one of the many possible samples that could have been chosen using the same sample design and expected size. Sampling errors in this regard are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. These sampling errors are usually measured in terms of the standard errors for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to determine the confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall.
United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF)
MICS Programme Manager
Dataset available free of charge to registered users (www.childinfo.org).
MICS2 has put greater efforts in not only properly documenting the results published in the MICS2 country reports, but also to maximize the use of micro data sets via documentation and dissemination. For those MICS2 countries that granted UNICEF direct access to the micro data sets and documentation, a rigorous process was completed to ensure internal and external consistency, basic standards of data quality, corresponding documentation and, standardization of variable and value labels across countries.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigators and the country
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Bureau of Statistics. Lesotho Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2000. Ref. LSO_2000_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://www.childinfo.org on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Economics Data Group
Documentation of the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 1.0 - Prepared by IHSN/World Bank Microdata Library