The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health is the second round of the World Health Survey which was conducted in 2003. SAGE surveys are designed by the World Health Organization and implemented by national agencies in participating countries.
To obtain reliable, valid and comparable health, health-related and well-being data over a range of key domains for adult and older adult populations in nationally representative samples
To examine patterns and dynamics of age-related changes in health and well-being using longitudinal follow-up of a cohort as they age, and to investigate socio-economic consequences of these health changes
To supplement and cross-validate self-reported measures of health and the anchoring vignette approach to improving comparability of self-reported measures, through measured performance tests for selected health domains
To collect health examination and biomarker data that improves reliability of morbidity and risk factor data and to objectively monitor the effect of interventions
To generate large cohorts of older adult populations and comparison cohorts of younger populations for following-up intermediate outcomes, monitoring trends, examining transitions and life events, and addressing relationships between determinants and health, well-being and health-related outcomes
To develop a mechanism to link survey data to demographic surveillance site data
To build linkages with other national and multi-country ageing studies
To improve the methodologies to enhance the reliability and validity of health outcomes and determinants data
To provide a public-access information base to engage all stakeholders, including national policy makers and health systems planners, in planning and decision-making processes about the health and well-being of older adults
SAGE's first full round of data collection included both follow-up and new respondents in most participating countries. The goal of the sampling design was to obtain a nationally representative cohort of persons aged 50 years and older, with a smaller cohort of persons aged 18 to 49 for comparison purposes. In the older households, all persons aged 50+ years (for example, spouses and siblings) were invited to participate. Proxy respondents were identified for respondents who were unable to respond for themselves. Standardized SAGE survey instruments were used in all countries consisting of five main parts: 1) household questionnaire; 2) individual questionnaire; 3) proxy questionnaire; 4) verbal autopsy questionnaire; and, 5) appendices including showcards. A VAQ was completed for deaths in the household over the last 24 months. The procedures for including country-specific adaptations to the standardized questionnaire and translations into local languages from English follow those developed by and used for the World Health Survey.
0100 Sampling Information
0200 Geocoding and GPS Information
0300 Recontact Information
0350 Contact Record
0400 Household Roster
0450 Kish Tables and Household Consent
0600 Household and Family Support Networks and Transfers
0700 Assets and Household Income
0800 Household Expenditures
0900 Interviewer Observations
1000 Socio-Demographic Characteristics
1500 Work History and Benefits
2000 Health State Descriptions and Vignettes
2500 Anthropometrics, Performance Tests and Biomarkers
3000 Risk Factors and Preventive Health Behaviours
4000 Chronic Conditions and Health Services Coverage
5000 Health Care Utilization
6000 Social Cohesion
7000 Subjective Well-Being and Quality of Life (WHOQoL-8 and Day Reconstruction Method)
9000 Interviewer Assessment
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
households and individuals
v01: Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
The scope of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health includes:
HOUSEHOLD: household characteristics, housing, household and family support, assets and household income, household expenditure.
INDIVIDUAL: socio demographic characteristics, work history, health state, anthropometrics, performance tests and biomarkers, risk factors, chronic conditions and health service coverage, health care utilisation, social cohesion, subjective well-being and quality of life.
Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE)
Ageing, Alcohol, Asthma, Blindness, Cancer, Cataract, Cervical cancer, Chronic diseases, COPD, Depression, Diabetes, Diet, Disabilities, Epidemiology, Health financing, Health services, Health surveys, Health systems, Heart disease, Indoor air pollution, Injuries traffic, Mapping, Noncommunicable diseases, Nutrition, Obesity, Oral Health, Passive smoking, Physical activity, Poverty, Primary health care, Risk factors, Sanitation, Social determinants of health, Statistics, Stroke, Suicide, Tobacco, Visual impairment, Water
WHO Health topics
The household section of the survey covered all households in all seven federal districts of the Russian Federation. Institutionalised populations are also excluded. The individual section covered all persons aged 18 years and older residing within individual households. As the focus of SAGE is older adults, a much larger sample of respondents aged 50 years and older were selected with a smaller comparative sample of respondents aged 18-49 years.
Producers and sponsors
Professor Tamara Maximova
Semashko Institute for Research on Social Hygiene, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
US National Institute on Aging
Financial support through Interagency Agreements (OGHA 04034785; YA1323-08-CN-0020; Y1-AG-1005-01) and Grants (R01-AG034479; IR21-AG034263-0182)
Dr Richard Suzman
The National Institute on Aging's Division of Behavioral and Social Research
Dr Suzman was Instrumental in providing continuous intellectual and other technical support to SAGE and has made the entire endeavour possible
All seven federal districts were included in the sample and constitute the strata. The sample is nationally representative. Moscow city and St Petersburg which are federal cities and Moscow oblast were included with absolute certainty. Atenum, which are polling districts, constitute the PSUs. 267 atenum were selected probability proportional to size, the measure of size being the number of inhabitants aged 18 and above in the atenum. Households which were randomly selected constitute the SSUs. In the final stage, all persons aged 50 and over in 50-plus households were eligible for the individual interview, and one person aged 18-49 years was eligible for the individual interview.
Stages of selection
Strata: Federal District = 7
PSU: Atenum = 150 surveyed
SSU: Household = 4 644 surveyed
TSU: Individual = 4 947 surveyed
Household weights(variable hhweight) for analysis at household level and individual weights(variable pweight) for analysis at person level were calculated. These were based on the selection probability at each stage of selection.
Household weights were post-stratified by federal district and locality according to the 2001 population census figures provided by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat). Individual weights were post-stratified by federal district, locality, sex and age-groups (18-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70+) according to the 2011 mean predictive population estimates provided by Rosstat. Weights are not normalized.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Face-to-face [f2f], PAPI
Semashko Institute for Research on Social Hygiene
Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
The questionnaires were based on the WHS Model Questionnaire with some modification and many new additions. A household questionnaire was administered to all households eligible for the study. A Verbal Autopsy questionnaire was administered to households that had a death in the last 24 months. An Individual questionniare was administered to eligible respondents identified from the household roster. A Proxy questionnaire was administered to individual respondents who had cognitive limitations. The questionnaires were developed in English and were piloted as part of the SAGE pretest in 2005. All documents were translated into Russian. All SAGE generic questionnaires are available as external resources.
Data editing took place at a number of stages including:
(1) office editing and coding
(2) during data entry
(3) structural checking of the CSPro files
(4) range and consistency secondary edits in Stata
Health Statistics and Information Systems (World Health Organization)
Health Statistics and Information Systems (World Health Organization)
The user undertakes:
(1) to keep confidential any information concerning individual persons or households.
(2) not to distribute the data to any other user.
(3) to use the data for scientific research only.
(4) to share any planned publications with WHO prior to publication.
Publications based on SAGE data should use the following acknowledgement: "This paper uses data from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE)."
Disclaimer and copyrights
The data is being distributed without warranty of any kind. The responsibility for the use of the data lies with the user. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.