The Living Conditions Monitoring Surveys (LCMS) evolved from the Social Dimensions of Adjustment Priority surveys conducted in 1991 (PSI) and 1993 (PSII), by the Zambia Central Statistical Office. So far, four (4) Living Conditions Monitoring Surveys have been conducted.
These are: -
(i) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey I of 1996
(ii) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey II of 1998, and
(iii) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey III of 2002/2003
(iv) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey IV of 2004
The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey V (or Indicator Monitoring Survey) was conducted in December 2006 covering the whole country. The major objective was to provide poverty estimates, and provides a platform for comparing with previous poverty estimates derived from cross-sectional survey data. Using similar survey design to that earlier conducted in 1998, the poverty estimates from the 2006 survey are comparable to the survey of 1998. It should be noted that, although the Central Statistical Office conducted another survey for 12 months during 2002/2003, the poverty results could not be compared to the 1998 Living Conditions Survey that was used to provide baseline poverty estimates for reports that include the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) of 2002-4 and the Millennium Development Goals.
Specifically the main objectives of the LCMIV Survey are to:
- Monitor the impact of Government policies, programmes and donor support on the well being of the Zambian population
- Monitor and evaluate the implementation of some of the programmes envisaged in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)
- Monitor poverty and its distribution in Zambia
- Provide various users with a set of reliable indicators against which to monitor development
- Identify vulnerable groups in society and enhance targeting in policy formulation and implementation
The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey 2006 collected data on the living conditions of households and persons in the areas of education, health, economic activities and employment, child nutrition, death in the households, income sources, income levels, food production, household consumption expenditure, access to clean and safe water and sanitation, housing and access to various socio-economic facilities and infrastructure such as schools, health facilities, transport, banks, credit facilities, markets, etc.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The 2006 Zambia Living Conditions Monitoring Survey includes the following topics:
- Household Identification Particulars
- Household Roster
- Marital Status and Orphanhood
- Economic Activity (for all persons aged 5 years and above)
- Income (for all persons aged 5 years and above including agricultural income)
- Household Assets
- Household Amenities and Housing Conditions
- Household Access to Facilities
- Self Assessed Poverty and Household Coping Strategies
- Agricultural Production
- Household Expenditure
- Developmental Issues and Social Fund Impact
- Child Health and Nutrition (Anthropometry)
- Deaths in the Household
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Office (CSO)
Sample Design and Coverage
The LCMS V covered the entire nation on a sample basis. It covered both rural and urban areas in all the nine provinces. The survey was designed to provide data for each and every district in Zambia. A sample of 1,000 Standard Enumeration Areas (SEAs) was drawn to cover approximately 20,000 households.
Sample Stratification and Allocation
The sampling frame used for the LCMS V was developed from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing. The country is administratively demarcated into 9 provinces, which are further divided into 72 districts. The districts are further subdivided into 150 constituencies, which are in turn divided into wards. For the purposes of conducting CSO surveys, Wards are further divided into Census Supervisory Areas (CSA), which are further subdivided into Standard Enumeration areas (SEAs). For the purposes of this survey, SEAs constituted the Primary Sampling Units (PSUs).
In order to have reasonable estimates at district level and at the same time take into account variation in the sizes of the districts, the survey adopted the Square Root sample allocation method, (Leslie Kish, 1987). This approach offers a compromise between equal and proportional allocation i.e. small sized strata (Districts) are at least allocated larger samples. The allocation of the sample points to rural and urban strata was done in such a way that it was proportional to their sizes in each district.
Note: Detailed sampling procedure is presented in the LCMS 2006 final report.
The household response rate was also very high with a national average of 97.8 percent of the originally selected households. At provincial level, all the provinces recorded a household response rate of above 97 percent. The highest proportion of responding households was recorded in Southern Province at 99. 2 percent and the lowest was on the Copperbelt and Northern provinces with 97.1 percent.
Analysis by Residence shows that almost all the urban SEAs were covered with a response rate of 98.5 percent. North Western Province recorded the lowest coverage rate of SEAs with only 91.7 percent of the SEAs covered. In rural areas almost all the selected SEAs were covered. However, in North Western Province, out of the 60 rural SEAs selected, only 53 SEAs were enumerated representing 88.3 percent coverage.
In general, households in rural areas had slightly higher response rates than households in urban areas. At national level, the household response rate in rural areas was 98.5 percent compared to 97.1 percent.
The non coverage in most cases was due to inaccessibility of some areas due to floods and washed away bridges especially in North Western Province. Post stratification adjustment to the weights was done in order to compensate for non coverage of SEAs. The household selection technique allows for systematic method of replacing non responding households.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Three types of questionnaires are used in the survey. These are:-
1. The Listing Booklet - to be used for listing all the households residing in the selected Standard Enumeration Areas (SEAs)
2. The Main questionnaire - to be used for collecting detailed information on all household members.
3. The Prices questionnaire:- to be used to collect data on unit prices of various commodities in the established trading places found in districts, provincial capitals and cities.This information is vital for the hamonising regional differences in prices.
Central Statistical Office
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.