The Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) of the Maldives 2009-2010, collected detailed information on the expenditure, income, demographic and socio-economic characteristics from local households living in the administrative islands of the country. The survey is planned to be conducted every five years on a regular basis
The 2009-2010 HIES is the second such nationwide survey conducted by the Statistics Division of the Department of National Planning. The first nationwide HIES conducted in 2002-2003 covered 834 households from the capital Male' and 40 islands randomly selected from all the Atolls.
The Statistics Division of the Department of National Planning (DNP/SD) conducts Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) in the Maldives. HIES 2009-2010 is the second such nationwide survey conducted in the country. 39 islands were randomly selected from all 20 Atolls and the capital Male' with a sample of 2,060 households.
The main objective of HIES is to produce reliable statistics on different components of income and expenditure of households in Male' and the Atolls to assess the economic well-being of the population. Specifically, the results will be used to bring about improvements in the national accounts, consumer price index and the vulnerability and poverty statistics of the country.
HIES results will be particularly essential and used for following purposes:
• To show the most recent composition of consumption expenditure of households which will be used to update the CPI weights
• To improve GDP estimates particularly for the components of final consumption expen diture of households, income and outlay and savings.
• To measure living standard and indicate the gap between different social strata
• To analyze distribution of households in terms of income groups and proper statistical measure of income inequality such as Gini coefficient.
• To measure the poverty situation of households and update the existing poverty esti mates and indicators.
The 2009 Maldives Household Income and Expenditure Survey includes the following topics:
- Household Identification
- Household Demographic Characteristic / Household Roster
- Education (for persons 6 years and above)
- Nuptuality and Fertility (for persons 15 years and above)
- Employment (for persons 15 years and above)
o Primary occupation
o Secondary occupation
- Household Diary /Household Expenditure
o Acquiring furniture and other household equipments (within 12 months - including the current month)
o Expenditure on sustainable maintenance of households (within 12 months - including the current month)
o Food purchased in bulk (for use for more than a month - within the last 1 month)
o Staple food and other food items (current month expenses)
o Other food and household expenditure (current month expenses)
o Stable food and other food items (current month expenditure)
o Expenditure on sustainable maintenance of households (current month expenses)
o Transport and communication (current month expenses)
o Entertainment, sports and cultural activities (current month expenses)
o Personal goods/ Personal care (current month expenses)
o Education (current month expenses)
o Education (during the last 3 months)
o Celebrating special occassions (during the past 3 months)
o Medical and Health Expenses (current month expenses)
o Medical and Health Expenses (during the past 3 months)
o Clothing and footware (current month expenses)
o Clothing and footware (during the past 3 months)
o Personal/Family expenditure (all types) (current month expenses)
- Living Condition
- Consumer Durable
Producers and sponsors
Department of National Planning
Ministry of Finance and Treasury
Required data for sampling were obtained from the population and housing census 2006. The country consists of 20 administrative atolls comprising of 194 inhabited islands. For political purpose these 20 administrative atolls are grouped as 7 regions. The capital Male' has separate administrative status. The frame for Male' consists of 6 wards and 324 enumeration blocks. HIES uses the area frame as a basis, to make the sample representative for the administrative and geographic structure of the country. All the inhabited islands have clearly marked census enumeration blocks, which were used in the sampling. Major characteristics of the HIES sampling frame are given below. A total of 880 blocks and 45,993 households were in the 194 inhabited islands of the country.
Note: Detailed sampling information is presented in APPENDIX ONE in the final report.
The weighting procedure for HIES required two steps.
In Male' first step was calculation for wards and the calculation for households as the second step. Male' was stratified in to 6 wards. The total sample was allocated to each ward using proportional allocation. SRS sample of blocks selected within each stratum. The design weight was computed as;
The proportional sampling design weight does not vary much across the strata. At the estimation stage, design weight may undergo some changes to adjust the difference of the number of households in the frame and in the actual list as well as the non-response.
In the Atolls the first step was calculation of region weights and the second step was calculation of enumeration blocks weight. And then adjustments were made for non-response.
Response rate was calculated as ratio between number of households which responded and number of selected households in the stratum. Non-response adjustment is defined as:
W(r)=# of sample(n)/# responding
The final weight after the non-response adjustment for households is:
W(F) = W(bi) X W(r)
Where W(bi) = Base/design weight for i-th sample area,
W(r)= Adjustment for non-response
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
HIES field operation commenced with Male' on 27 September 2009, split over three rounds from September 2009 to January 2010. Expenditure diaries in Male' were maintained during October, November and December 2009. Field operation in Male' was carried out by 35 enumerators who were hired and trained prior to field operation which got completed on 20 January 2010.
HIES field operations in the Atolls commenced on 24 February 2010, spread over four different rounds during February to September 2010. Expenditure dairies were maintained during March, April, May and August 2010. A total of 39 islands were selected for the enumeration and at least 1 island from each atoll was surveyed.
A total of 22 enumerators from Male' were trained and dispatched to the Atolls for the field operation in the selected islands. These teams spent 9 days in each selected island. For enumeration in the atolls at least 1 trained enumerator from Male' per block was send to each island. These enumerators were paired with the enumerators selected from the islands. However two enumerators from Male' were sent to islands with one sample block. For islands with three or more blocks an additional supervisor was sent from the trained personnel or the trained enumerator sent from Male' will work as a supervisor. Field works in the Atolls were completed on 10th September 2010.
Household Income and Expenditure survey data was collected by interview method. Although this method is time consuming and costly, the data collection from this technique is considered to provide the most accurate, data because the questions could be lengthy and the interviewer could get a more in-depth response from the respondent. Interviewers can probe and persuade respondents to answer the questions and can stress the importance of the survey.
There were 8 different questionnaires. This includes:
• Listing form (Form 1) is used to enumerate all the structures and households in the se lected Enumeration block in preparation for the actual household survey. One set of forms to be completed for each selected enumeration block.
• Household form, (Form 2) consists of information on housing, household composition, household durables, and travel by members of the household, investment and financial status of household. One form has to be completed for each household.
• Household member form (Individual form), (Form 3) consists of basic demographic char acteristics on all household members, education for those aged 6 years and above and identifies the labour force. One column on the form needs to be completed for each member of the household.
• Employment and income form (Form 4) consists of information on employment and in come, one form to be completed for each member of the household who is aged fif teen years and over and who is working or is an income recipient.
• Expenditure forms (Form 5) and, (Form 6), For Male' and the Atoll Islands, Form 5 is used to record the household expenditures and Form 6 to record the personal expendi tures of individual household members over the age of 15. Thus, a Form 5 will be filled for each household, while every individual member 15 years of age and above, who earns, fills a Form 6 to record his/her personal expenditure diary.
• Summary form (Form 7) consist the summary information of the household. After all the information for the household and its members were received, this form was used to calculate the household income and expenditure and to calculate the expenditure per day and expenditure per person for a household.
• ICT form (Form 8) consists of information related to the information communication technology (ICT). Accessibility, usage and expenditures on ICT by the household's mem bers aged 4 years and above were recorded in this form.
The coding of data of Male' commenced from 18 January 2010 till 11 February 2010 with a group of 12 coders who also worked as enumerators in the survey. In order to reduce the coding errors and also to maintain consistency, 2 staff from the Statistics Division was assigned as supervisors during the coding operation.
The classification used to code industry was International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) Rev. 3 and to code occupation, International Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO) 88 was used. Central Product Classification (CPC) Ver.1.0 was used to give code for food and non-food items in the diaries. Atoll Island codes were the codes used in Census 2006. ISIC, ISCO and Atoll Island codes were in four digit level. CPC codes were given at 7 digit level for food items and at 5 digit level for non-food items.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors refers to the difference between the estimate based on a sample and its 'true' population value that would result if the whole population has been surveyed. The extent of sampling error of an estimate under a particular sample design is assessed by the variability of the estimate across all possible samples under the design. One common measure of this variability is given by the standard error (SE), which is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the estimate. Another measure is the relative standard error (RSE), which is obtained by expressing the standard error as a percentage to the estimate. The smaller the RSE, the more precise is the estimate.
The difference between standard error (SE) and relative standard error (RES) are that the standard error (SE) measure indicates the extent to which a survey estimate is likely to deviate from the true population and is expressed as a number. The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a fraction of the estimate and is usually displayed as a percentage. Estimates with a RSE of 25% or greater are subject to high sampling error and should be used with caution.
The reliability of estimates can also be assessed in terms of a confidence interval. Confidence intervals represent the range in which the population value is likely to lie. They are constructed using the estimate of the population value and its associated standard error. For example, there is approximately a 95% chance (i.e. 19 chances in 20) that the population value lies within two standard errors of the estimates, so the 95% confidence interval is equal to the estimate plus or minus two standard errors.
Note: Estimated sampling errors of some selected estimates in the HIES 2009/10 report are in Table 1.7.1.
Sample surveys are limited in that they are assumed to represent the part of the population that was not included in the sample. Surveys have various sampling and non sampling errors, such an assumption may not always be correct. In the HIES 2009/2010 an important limitation is that no conclusions can be drawn from the information on the situation in any particular atoll; as the survey was designed to represent for Male' and at the 7 regions at the most disaggregated level. Also the regions in HIES 2009/2010 is different from previous HIES, hence the two HIESs is not comparable at regional level.
The survey design of HIES does not include resorts and industrial islands. Hence the direct incomes and expenditures of this particular population will not be accounted. If a person was not living in the household during the survey period the income the income of that person was recorded as transfer income. This limitation resulted in the employment in tourism industry lower compared to census 2006.
Department of National Planning
Ministry of Finance and Treasury
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
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The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.