The 1987 Indonesia National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS)/ Demographic and Health Survey is the first survey of this type conducted in Indonesia.
The DHS is intended to serve as a primary source for international population and health information for policymakers and for the research community. In general, DHS has four objectives:
- To provide participating countries with a database and analysis useful for informed choices,
- To expand the international population and health database,
- To advance survey methodology, and
- To help develop in participating countries technical skills and resources necessary to conduct demographic and health surveys.
Apart from estimating fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates, DHS also covers the topic of child health, which has become the focus of many development programs aimed at improving the quality of life in general. The Indonesian DHS survey did not include health-related questions because this information was collected in the 1987 SUSENAS in more detail and with wider geographic coverage. Hence, the Indonesian DHS was named the "National Indonesian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey" (NICPS).
The National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS) was a collaborative effort between the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), the Institute for Resource Development of Westinghouse and the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). The survey was part of an international program in which similar surveys are being implemented in developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
The 1987 NICPS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives:
- To provide data on the family planning and fertility behavior of the Indonesian population necessary for program organizers and policymakers in evaluating and enhancing the national family planning program, and
- To measure changes in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates and at the same time study factors which affect the change, such as marriage patterns, urban/rural residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and availability of contraception.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
The 1987 Indonesia National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS)/ Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- Demographic Characteristics
- Respondent's Background
- Knowledge and Practice of Birth Control (Family Planning)
- Fertility Preferences
- Husband's Background and Work
- Interview Particulars
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB)
Institute for Resource Development/Westinghouse
United States Agency for International Development, Jakarta
United Nations Population Fund
The 1987 NICPS sample was drawn from the annual National Socioeconomic Survey (popularly called SUSENAS) which was conducted in January and February 1987. Each year the SUSENAS consists of one set of core questions and several modules which are rotated every three years. The 1987 SUSENAS main modules covered household income, expenditure, and consumption. In addition, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, information pertaining to children under 5 years of age was collected, including food supplement patterns, and measurement of height, weight, and arm circumference. In this module, information on prenatal care, type of birth attendant, and immunization was also asked.
This national survey covered over 60,000 households which were scattered in almost all of the districts. The data were collected by the "Mantri Statistik", a CBS officer in charge of data collection at the sub-district level. All households covered in the selected census blocks were listed on the SSN 87-LI form. This form was then used in selecting samples for each of the modules included in the SUSENAS. This particular form was also used to select the sample households in the 1987 NICPS.
Sample selection in the 1987 SUSENAS utilized a multistage sampling procedure. The first stage consisted of selecting a number of census blocks with probability proportional to the number of households in the block. Census blocks are statistical areas formed before the 1980 Population Census and contain approximately 100 households. At the second stage, households were selected systematically from each sampled census block.
Selection of the 1987 NICPS sample was also done in two stages. The first stage was to select census blocks from the those selected in the 1987 SUSENAS. At the second stage a number of households was selected systematically from the selected census block.
The NICPS covered a sample of nearly 15,000 households to interview 11,884 respondents. Respondents for the individual interview were ever-married women aged 15-49. During the data collection, 14,141 out of the 14,227 existing households and 11,884 out of 12,065 eligible women were successfully interviewed. In general, few problems were encountered during interviewing, and the response rate was high--99 percent for households and 99 percent for individual respondents.
Note: See APPENDIX A in the report for more information.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Given the large number of field workers, high transportation costs, and the length of the training, it was decided that the training should be done in stages. The first stage was training for the Field Coordinators which was organized by the CBS. The next stage was for the field workers, and was carried out in five training centers by the Provincial Statistics Offices.
Ten of the twenty Field Coordinators who represented the 20 provinces covered in the survey attended a training course conducted by CBS August 10-16, 1987. This training was aimed at giving them knowledge and expertise in planning and implementing the survey in their provinces. The Field Coordinators assisted CBS instructors during field worker training. The instructors were Toto E. Sastrasuanda and Sri Poedjastoeti of the Social and Population Statistics Bureau, and Dr. Sudarti Surbakti of the Bureau of Analysis and Development.
The second stage of the training was carried out in two phases in five training centers. The participants included all Field Coordinators who had not received training, supervisors, and interviewers.
The training lasted 15 days and followed a standard pattern. It consisted of explanations of the survey procedures, instructions on how to fill the questionnaires, how to conduct interviews, and discussions on issues related to family planning. In this training a greater proportion of time was spent on interviewing techniques and practices. Several methods of practice interviewing were used, such as listening to recorded interviews, observing and listening to an interview conducted by the instructor, and finally carrying out actual interviews. Practice interviewing was introduced in stages, beginning with interviewing other participants in the class, then respondents who were invited to the class, and then respondents in their homes. When participants came from areas in which several languages were spoken, practice interviews were carried out in those languages. During the field practice, interpreters were sometimes needed.
In all training centers some sessions were used to discuss family planning and related issues. This is vital in providing field workers with knowledge about methods of contraception, especially because many of them were single and not aware of the various contraceptive methods included in the survey questionnaires.
Several tests were given during the training on which the performance of the trainees was evaluated. The trainees' skill in conducting interviews was also observed. The best participants were appointed as Field Editors.
The 1987 NICPS field work was not carried out simultaneously throughout Indonesia. Provinces where field worker training was conducted first began data collection earlier than provinces where training took place later. Field work was initiated in mid-September 1987 and ended in the third week of December 1987.
On the average, interviews with eligible respondents were completed in 40 minutes. An interviewer could finish about 3 or 4 households and individual interviews a day, including time used for locating the sample household, editing the questionnaires and revisits.
Data collection was carried out by teams which moved from one sample point to another within a province. The number of teams in each province varied. Large provinces such as West Java, Central Java and East Java had 3 teams, whereas other provinces usually had one team. The size of the teams is also varied by province. In Java and Bali, each team consisted of 3 or 4 interviewers, one field editor, and one supervisor. In other areas the composition of the team was similar except the number of interviewers was limited to two.
Note: See APPENDIX A in the report for more information.
The household questionnaire was used to record all members of the selected households who usually live in the household. The questionnaire was utilized to identify the eligible respondents in the household, and to provide the numerator for the computation of demographic measurements such as fertility and contraceptive use rates.
The individual questionnaire was used for all ever-married women aged 15-49, and consisted of the following eight sections:
Section 1 Respondent's Background
This part collected information related to the respondent and the household, such as current and past mobility, age, education, literacy, religion, and media exposure. Information related to the household includes source of water for drinking, for bathing and washing, type of toilet, ownership of durable goods, and type of floor.
Section 2 Reproduction
This part gathered information on all children ever born, sex of the child, month and year of birth, survival status of the child, age when the child died, and whether the child lived with the respondent. Using the information collected in this section, one can compute measures of fertility and mortality, especially infant and child mortality rates. With the birth history data collected in this section, it is possible to calculate trends in fertility over time. This section also included a question about whether the respondent was pregnant at the time of interview, and her knowledge regarding women's fertile period in the monthly menstrual cycle.
Section 3 Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning
This section is one of the most important parts of the 1987 NICPS survey. Here the respondent was asked whether she had ever heard of or used any of the family planning methods listed. If the respondent had used a contraceptive method, she was asked detailed questions about the method. For women who gave birth to a child since January 1982, questions on family planning methods used in the intervals between births were also asked. The section also included questions on source of methods, quality of use, reasons for nonuse, and intentions for future use. These data are expected to answer questions on the effectiveness of family planning use. Finally, the section also included questions about whether the respondent had been visited by a family planning field worker, which community-level people she felt were most appropriate to give family planning information, and whether she had ever heard of the condom, DuaLima, the brand being promoted by a social marketing program.
Section 4 Breastfeeding
The objective of this part was to collect information on maternal and child health, primarily that concerning place of birth, type of assistance at birth, breastfeeding practices, and supplementary food. Information was collected for children born since January 1982.
Section 5 Marriage
This section gathered information regarding the respondent's age at first marriage, number of times married, and whether the respondent and her husband ever lived with any of their parents. Several questions in this section were related to the frequency of sexual intercourse to determine the respondent's risk of pregnancy. Not all of the data collected in this section are presented in this report; some require more extensive analysis than is feasible at this stage.
Section 6 Fertility Preferences
Intentions about having another child, preferred birth interval, and ideal number of children were covered in this section.
Section 7 Husband's Background and Respondent's Work
Education, literacy and occupation of the respondent's husband made up this section of the questionnaire. It also collected information on the respondent's work pattern before and after marriage, and whether she was working at the time of interview.
Section 8 Interview Particulars
This section was used to record the language used in the interview and information about whether the interviewer was assisted by an interpreter. The individual questionnaire also included information regarding the duration of interview and presence of other persons at particular points during the interview. In addition to the questionnaires, two manuals were developed. The manual for interviewers contained explanations of how to conduct an interview, how to carry out the field activity, and how to fill out the questionnaires. Since information regarding age was vital in this survey, a table to convert months from Javanese, Sundanese and Islamic calendar systems to the Gregorian calendar was attached to the 1987 NICPS manual for the interviewers.
Based on the number of questionnaires received from the field, survey implementation did not differ significantly from survey design. Of 14,861 households expected, 14,755 were actually found, and 14,141 Household Schedules were completed. In the planning stage, 12,000 eligible respondents were targeted in the sample. During the field visits, 12,073 eligible women were found, of whom 11,884 were successfully interviewed.
Documents received from the field were manually edited to ensure completeness in terms of quantity and content, and to check responses. The number of documents received were checked against the accompanying Supervisor's and Interviewers' Assignment Sheets. At this stage "open-ended" questions were coded. The data were subsequently entered onto microcomputers using a package program, the Integrated System for Survey Analysis (ISSA), specially developed to process DHS data. The processing used four 640K IBM-compatible computers and two printers.
The first step in data processing involved transferring the data recorded in the questionnaires to diskettes. Next was verification of the recorded data on a random basis to check for errors during data entry. Before tabulation, the data were edited for consistency, using a series of specially designed rules to minimize existing errors. Tabulations were run at IRD/Westinghouse and sent to the designated analysts in Indonesia, who subsequently spent a month at DHS headquarters in Columbia, Maryland drafting this report.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The results from sample surveys are affected by two types of errors: (1) non-sampling error and (2) sampling error. Non-sampling error is due to mistakes made in carrying out field activities, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, errors in the way questions are asked, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, data entry errors, etc. Although efforts were made during the design and implementation of the NICPS to minimize this type of error, non-sampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate analytically.
The sample of women selected in the NICPS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each one would have yielded results that differed somewhat from the actual sample selected. The sampling error is a measure of the variability between all possible samples; although it is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. Sampling error is usually measured in terms of the "standard error" of a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which one can be reasonably assured that, apart from non-sampling errors, the true value of the variable for the whole population falls. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that same statistic as measured in 95 percent of all possible samples with the same design (and expected size) will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic.
If the sample of women had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straight forward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the NICPS sample design depended on stratification, stages, and clusters; consequently, it was necessary to utilize more complex formulas. The computer package CLUSTERS was used to assist in computing the sampling errors with the proper statistical methodology.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX B of the survey report.
Data and Data Related Resources
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Indonesia Central Bureau of Statistics, National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), Indonesia, and Institute for Resource Development/Westinghouse, Columbia, Maryland USA. Indonesia National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS)/ Demographic and Health Survey 1987. Ref. IDN_1987_DHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.