The 2002-2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is the fifth survey on demography and health in Indonesia and was conducted as part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) project.
The Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys program, which is designed to collect data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. The 2002-2003 IDHS follows a sequence of several previous surveys: the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS), the 1991 IDHS, the 1994 IDHS, and the 1997 IDHS. The 2002-2003 IDHS is expanded from the 1997 IDHS by including a collection of information on the participation of currently married men and their wives and children in the health care.
The main objective of the 2002-2003 IDHS is to provide policymakers and program managers in population and health with detailed information on population, family planning, and health. In particular, the 2002-2003 IDHS collected information on the female respondents’ socioeconomic background, fertility levels, marriage and sexual activity, fertility preferences, knowledge and use of family planning methods, breastfeeding practices, childhood and adult mortality including maternal mortality, maternal and child health, and awareness and behavior regarding AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in Indonesia.
The 2002-2003 IDHS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives:
- Provide data concerning fertility, family planning, maternal and child health, maternal mortality, and awareness of AIDS/STIs to program managers, policymakers, and researchers to help them evaluate and improve existing programs
- Measure trends in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates, analyze factors that affect such changes, such as marital status and patterns, residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and knowledge, use, and availability of contraception
- Evaluate achievement of goals previously set by the national health programs, with special focus on maternal and child health
- Assess men’s participation and utilization of health services, as well as of their families
- Assist in creating an international database that allows cross-country comparisons that can be used by the program managers, policymakers, and researchers in the area of family planning, fertility, and health in general.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
- Men age 15-54
The 2002-2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- Birth Registration
- GPS/Georeferenced–Global Positioning System or Georeferenced Data
- HIV Knowledge–Questions assess knowledge/sources of knowledge/ways to avoid HIV
- Maternal Mortality
- Men's Survey
- Reproductive Calendar
- Vitamin A Questions
- Women's Status–Questions: women's autonomy (household decisionmaking/free movement/access money) & Dom. violence
Producers and sponsors
Statistics Indonesia (BPS)
National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB)
Ministry of Health
United States Agency for International Development
SAMPLE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
Administratively, Indonesia is divided into 30 provinces. Each province is subdivided into districts (regency in areas mostly rural and municipality in urban areas). Districts are subdivided into subdistricts and each subdistrict is divided into villages. The entire village is classified as urban or rural.
The primary objective of the 2002-2003 IDHS is to provide estimates with acceptable precision for the following domains:
· Indonesia as a whole;
· Each of 26 provinces covered in the survey. The four provinces excluded due to political instability are Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Maluku, North Maluku and Papua. These provinces cover 4 percent of the total population.
· Urban and rural areas of Indonesia;
· Each of the five districts in Central Java and the five districts in East Java covered in the Safe Motherhood Project (SMP), to provide information for the monitoring and evaluation of the
project. These districts are:
- in Central Java: Cilacap, Rembang, Jepara, Pemalang, and Brebes.
- in East Java: Trenggalek, Jombang, Ngawi, Sampang and Pamekasan.
The census blocks (CBs) are the primary sampling unit for the 2002-2003 IDHS. CBs were formed during the preparation of the 2000 Population Census. Each CB includes approximately 80 households. In the master sample frame, the CBs are grouped by province, by regency/municipality within a province, and by subdistricts within a regency/municipality. In rural areas, the CBs in each district are listed by their geographical location. In urban areas, the CBs are distinguished by the urban classification (large, medium and small cities) in each subdistrict.
Note: See detailed description of sample design in APPENDIX B of the survey report.
A total of 34,738 households were selected for the survey, of which 33,419 were found. Of the encountered households, 33,088 (99 percent) were successfully interviewed. In these households, 29,996 ever-married women 15-49 were identified, and complete interviews were obtained from 29,483 of them (98 percent). From the households selected for interviews with men, 8,740 currently married men 15-54 were identified, and complete interviews were obtained from 8,310 men, or 95 percent of all eligible men. The generally high response rates for both household and individual interviews (for eligible women and men) were due mainly to the strict enforcement of the rule to revisit the originally selected household if no one was at home initially. No substitution for the originally selected households was allowed. Interviewers were instructed to make at least three visits in an effort to contact the household, eligible women, and eligible men.
Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1.2 of the survey report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
BPS piloted the questionnaire, control form, and manuals in August 2002 to detect any possible problems in the translations or flow of the questionnaire, as well as to gauge the length of time required for interviews. Another important objective of the pretest was to gain experience in field operations and interviewing men, because for the first time IDHS included individual interviews with men. The pretest took place in two provinces, Jambi and South Kalimantan. Pretest training took place from August 1-18, 2002 with the last day spent to train the supervisors and editors to perform their tasks. The training was conducted following the IDHS training procedures, including class presentations, mock interviews, field practice and tests. The training included practice interviews using the questionnaire in Bahasa Indonesia and the local dialect.
In each province, 12 people were trained, forming two teams, each consisting of one male supervisor, one female field editor, three female interviewers and one male interviewer. All trainees were employees of BPS field offices.
Pretest fieldwork lasted for a week (August 22-30, 2002). Fieldwork was conducted in both urban and rural settings. In South Kalimantan, one urban and two rural census blocks were visited. In each census block, 25 households were selected. These households were interviewed using the Household Questionnaires, where all ever-married women age 15-49 and currently married males age 15-54 were identified. In all selected census blocks, a total of 150 households were visited, 75 in Jambi and 75 in South Kalimantan. The survey instruments were finalized following discussions with the National Family Planning Coordinating Board and and the Ministry of Health.
A total of 530 persons, 362 women and 168 men, participated in the main survey training for interviewers. Training for 23 provinces took place September 30 through October 17, 2002, while for the three new provinces, training was held in February 2003. The training was conducted following the DHS training procedures including class presentations, mock interviews, and tests. All of the participants were trained using the Women’s Questionnaire. Once the materials for the women interview were completed, the male participants were trained in conducting an interview using the Men’s Questionnaire. The training included practice interviews in Bahasa Indonesia and participant’s local language.
The 2002-2003 IDHS data was collected by 94 interviewing teams. Each team consisted of one team supervisor, one field editor, three female interviewers and one male interviewer. Field operations took place over a five-and-a-half-month period, from October 21, 2002 to April 9, 2003. In most provinces, data collection took a break for at least one month during the Muslim fasting month, which fell in early November through early December 2002. In Riau, fieldwork began only in December 2002. In three provinces, Bangka-Belitung, Banten, and Gorontalo, training of field staff was in March 2003 and data collection took place in April and May 2003.
The 2002-2003 IDHS used three questionnaires: the Household Questionnaire, the Women’s Questionnaire for ever-married women 15-49 years old, and the Men’s Questionnaire for currently married men 15-54 years old. The Household Questionnaire and the Women’s Questionnaire were based on the DHS Model “A” Questionnaire, which is designed for use in countries with high contraceptive prevalence. In consultation with the NFPCB and MOH, BPS modified these questionnaires to reflect relevant issues in family planning and health in Indonesia. Inputs were also solicited from potential data users to optimize the IDHS in meeting the country’s needs for population and health data. The questionnaires were translated from English into the national language, Bahasa Indonesia.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Basic information collected for each person listed includes the following: age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview. In addition, the Household Questionnaire also identifies unmarried women and men age 15-24 who are eligible for the individual interview in the Indonesia Young Adult Reproductive Health Survey (IYARHS). Information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, construction materials used for the floor and outer walls of the house, and ownership of various durable goods were also recorded in the Household Questionnaire. These items reflect the household’s socioeconomic status.
The Women’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all ever-married women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics:
• Background characteristics, such as age, marital status, education, and media exposure
• Knowledge and use of family planning methods
• Fertility preferences
• Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care
• Breastfeeding and infant feeding practices
• Vaccinations and childhood illnesses
• Marriage and sexual activity
• Woman’s work and husband’s background characteristics
• Childhood mortality
• Awareness and behavior regarding AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
• Sibling mortality, including maternal mortality.
The Men’s Questionnaire was administered to all currently married men age 15-54 in every third household in the IDHS sample. The Men’s Questionnaire collected much of the same information included in the Women’s Questionnaire, but was shorter because it did not contain questions on reproductive history, maternal and child health, nutrition, and maternal mortality. Instead, men were asked about their knowledge and participation in the health-seeking practices for their children.
All completed questionnaires for IDHS, accompanied by their control forms, were returned to the BPS central office in Jakarta for data processing. This process consisted of office editing, coding of open-ended questions, data entry, verification, and editing computer-identified errors. A team of about 40 data entry clerks, data editors, and two data entry supervisors processed the data. Data entry and editing started on November 4, 2002 using a computer package program called CSPro, which was specifically designed to process DHS-type survey data. To prepare the data entry programs, two BPS staff spent three weeks in ORC Macro offices in Calverton, Maryland in April 2002.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: (1) nonsampling errors, and (2) sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2002-2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 2002-2003 IDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2002-2003 IDHS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 2002-2003 IDHS is the ISSA Sampling Error Module. This module used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX C of the survey report.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX D of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Data and Data Related Resources
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Statistics Indonesia (BPS), National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), Indonesia, Ministry of Health, Indonesia, and ORC Macro, Calverton, Maryland USA. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002. Ref. IDN_2002_DHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.