The Living Conditions Monitoring Surveys (LCMS) evolved from the Social Dimensions of Adjustment Priority surveys conducted in 1991 (PSI) and 1993 (PSII), by the Central Statistical Office. So far, four Living Conditions Monitoring Surveys have been conducted. These are: -
(i) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey I of 1996
(ii) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey II of 1998
(iii) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey III of 2002/2003 and
(iv) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey IV of 2004
Since 1991, the country has been utilizing cross-sectional sample data to monitor the well-being of the Zambian population, as was the case with the 1996 and 1998 LCMS surveys. However, in 2002/2003 a different methodology was employed to collect and analyze data. The survey was designed to collect data for a period of 12 months.
The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey IV (LCMSIV) was intended to highlight and monitor the living conditions of the Zambian society. The survey included a set of priority indicators on poverty and living conditions to be repeated regularly.
The main objective of the Living Conditions Monitoring Survey IV (LCMSIV) is to provide the basis for comparison of poverty estimates derived from cross-sectional survey data. In addition, the survey provides a basis on which to: -
- Monitor the impact of government policies and donor support on the well being of the Zambian population.
- Monitor poverty and its distribution in Zambia.
- Provide various users with a set of reliable indicators against which to monitor development.
- Identify vulnerable groups in society and enhance targeting in policy implementation.
- Develop new weights for the Consumer Price Indices and generate information that is required to produce National Accounts Statistics.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
For the purpose of computing indicators to meet the stated objectives, the LCMSIV questionnaire included the following topics:-
- Demography and migration
- Orphan hood
- Economic Activities
- Household Assets
- Household Amenities and Housing Conditions
- Household Access to facilities
- Self-assessed poverty and household coping strategies, and
- Agricultural production
- Household expenditure
- Community developmental issues
- Child Health and Nutrition
- Deaths in the household
The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey IV had a nationwide coverage on a sample basis. It covered both rural and urban areas in all the nine provinces. The survey was designed to provide data for each and every district in Zambia.
This survey was carried out under the provisions of the Census and Statistics Act, Chapter 425 of the Laws of Zambia. All persons residing in Zambia except for foreign diplomats accredited to embassies and high commissions at the time of the survey were required by this act to provide the necessary information.
Excluded from the sample were institutional populations in hospitals, boarding schools, colleges, universities, prisons, hotels, refugee camps, orphanages, military camps and bases and diplomats accredited to Zambia in embassies and high commissions. Private households living around these institutions and cooking separately were included such as teachers whose houses are within the premises of a school, doctors and other workers living on or around hospital premises, police living in police camps in separate houses, etc. Persons who were in hospitals, boarding schools, etc. but were usual members of households were included in their respective households. Ordinary workers other than diplomats working in embassies and high commissions were included in the survey also. Others with diplomatic status working in the UN, World Bank etc. were included. Also included were persons or households who live in institutionalized places such as hostels, lodges, etc. but cook separately. The major distinguishing factor between eligible and non eligible households in the survey is the cooking and eating separately versus food provided by an institution in a common/communal dining hall or eating place. The former cases were included while the latter were excluded.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Office
Government of Republic of Zambia
Government of Republic of Zambia
Zambia Social Investment Fund (ZAMSIF)
World Bank & Government of Zambia
Managing survey funds through its Poverty Monitoring and Analysis (PMA) component
Sample Stratification and Allocation
The sampling frame used for LCMSIV survey was developed from the 2000 census of population and housing. The country is administratively demarcated into 9 provinces, which are further divided into 72 districts. The districts are further subdivided into 155 constituencies, which are also divided into wards. Wards consist of Census Supervisory Areas (CSA), which are further subdivided into Standard Enumeration areas (SEAs). For the purposes of this survey, SEAs constituted the ultimate Primary Sampling Units (PSUs).In order to have equal precision in the estimates in all the districts and at the same time take into account variation in the sizes of the district, the survey adopted the Square Root sample allocation method, (Lesli Kish, 1987). This approach offers a better compromise between equal and proportional allocation methods in terms of reliability of both combined and separate estimates. The allocation of the sample points (PSUs) to rural and urban strata was almost proportional.A sample size of about 1,048 SEAs and approximately 20,000 households was drawn.
The LCMS IV employed a two-stage stratified cluster sample design whereby during the first stage, 1048 SEAs were selected with Probability Proportional to Estimated Size (PPES). The size measure was taken from the frame developed from the 2000 census of population and housing. During the second stage, households were systematically selected from an enumeration area listing. The survey was designed to provide reliable estimates at district, provincial, rural/urban and national levels.
The LCMS IV survey commenced by listing all the households in the selected SEAs. In the case of rural SEAs, households were stratified according to their agricultural activity status. Therefore, there were four explicit strata created in each rural SEA namely, the Small Scale Stratum (SSS), the Medium Scale Stratum (MSS), the Large Scale Stratum (LSS) and the Non-agricultural Stratum (NAS). For the purposes of the LCMSIV survey, about 7, 5 and 3 households were supposed to be selected from the SSS, MSS and NAS, respectively. The large scale households were selected on a 100 percent basis. The urban SEAs were implicitly stratified into low cost, medium cost and high cost areas according to CSO's and local authority classification of residential areas. About 15 and 25 households were sampled from rural and urban SEAs, respectively.However, the number of rural households selected in some cases exceeded the desired sample size of 15 households due to the 100 percent sampling of large scale farming households.The formulae used in selecting SEAs is provided in section 2.3.3 of the Survey Report in External Resources.
Selection of Households
The selection of households from various strata was preceded by assigning fully responding households sampling serial numbers. The circular systematic sampling method was used to select households. The method assumes that households are arranged in a circle (G. Kalton, 1983) and the following relationship applies:
Let N = nk,
N = Total number of households assigned sampling serial numbers in a stratum
n = Total desired sample size to be drawn from a stratum in an SEA
k = The sampling interval in a given SEA calculated as k=N/n.
Due to the disproportionate allocation of the sample points to various strata, sampling weights are required to correct for differential representation of the sample at national and sub-national levels. The weights of the sample are in this case equal to the inverse of the product of the two selection probabilities employed. (See section 2.5.1 of the report in External Resources for further details).
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
- The Provincial Head - the head of the operations in the province was responsible for ensuring that the fieldwork was conducted in the required manner. He/She was expected to make sure all the logistics for the field operations were in place. They assisted in the coodination of the survey.
- The Master Trainer was responsible for the day to day running of the field exercise. This involved overseeing, monitoring, collecting the work of the interviewers and the data entry operators. In addition he/she was responsible for managing the team’s equipment and funds.
- The Supervisor, who would have an assistant, was responsible for the day-to-day operations of the survey during fieldwork. He/she assisted the enumerator in identifying their work areas; provided them with the list of selected households and replacements where necessary. He/She also organized the work schedule and edited their work on a daily basis. He/she was required to conduct interviews where the enumerator was indisposed. In addition the supervisor also made sure that the local community leaders including local authorities, chiefs, headmen, etc were well informed about the survey.
- The supervisor was deputized by the Assistant Supervisor. The role of the Assistant Supervisorwas to help enumerators carry out their duties as expected. When the Supervisor was indisposed the Assistant Supervisor wouldl assume his/her role.
Data Collection Notes
Data collection was done by way of personal interviews using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to collect information on the various aspects of the living conditions of the households.
Central Statistical Office
Government of Republic of Zambia
Two types of questionnaires were used in the survey. These are:-
1. The Listing Booklet - for listing all the households residing in the selected Standard Enumeration Areas (SEAs)
2. The Main questionnaire - for collecting detailed information on all household members.
The data from the LCMSIV survey was processed and analysed using the CSPRO and the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) softwares respectively. Data entry was done from all the provincial offices with 100 percent verification, whilst data cleaning and analysis was undertaken at CSO’s headquarters
Director-CSO (Ministry of Finance and National Planning)
Central Statistical Office, Zambia
The Director (Central Statistical Office)
Central Statistical Office, Zambia
Confidentiality of respondents is guaranteed under the provisions of the Census and Statistics Act, CAP 127 of the laws of Zambia.
The Director of the Central Statistical Office has to authorise access to information. Before being granted access to the dataset or any other information produced by CSO, all users have to formally agree to the following:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the Central statistical Office.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment or sampling unit not identified on public use data files
3. To hold in the strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in the user's analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the Central Statistical office.
4. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only.
5. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organisation without the written agreement of the CSO.
Central Statistical Office, Living Conditions Monitoring Survey 2004 (LCMSIV 2004), Version 1 of the public use dataset (December 2005), provided by the Central Statistical Office.
Disclaimer and copyrights
All CSO products are protected by copyright. Users may apply the information as they wish, provided that they acknowledge CSO as the source of the basic data whenever they process, apply, utilize, publish or distribute the data, and also that they specify that the relevant application and analysis (where applicable) result from their own processing of the data .CSO and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.