The Armenian Household Budget Survey (HBS) 1996 was designed to be a nationally representative survey capable of measuring the standard of living in the Republic of Armenia (ROA) through the collection of data on the family, demographic, socio-economic and financial status of households. The survey was conducted in November - December 1996, on the whole territory of the republic by the State Department of Statistics (SDS) of ROA with technical and financial assistance from the World Bank.
The data collected included information on household composition, housing conditions, education level of household members, employment and income, savings, borrowing, as well as details on levels of expenditure including those on food, non-food, health, tourism and business. The survey covered about 100 villages and 28 towns. The size of the sample was 5,040 households of which 4,920 responded which makes the survey the largest carried out in Armenia to date and one with a very high response rate for a transition economy. The expenditure part of the data was collected using two different methods administered for different households. The methods are: recall method in which households were asked, during the interview, about their expenditures made during the last 30 days preceding the date of the interview; and a diary method where households were given a diary they used to record details about their income and expenditure on a daily basis for 30 days during the interview period. About 25% of the total sample of interviewed households used diaries and 75% used the recall method. The unit of study in the survey was the household, defined as a group of co-resident individuals with a common living budget. As will be explained in detail, the AHBS 96 was generally designed as a two stage stratified sampling, but for large urban areas with an almost definite probability of being selected, a one stage sampling was adopted.
The Armenian HBS 1996 is not a standard Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) survey - the questionnaire used is more limited in scope and much different in format from a typical LSMS. This survey used no community or price questionnaires; it did not use most of LSMS’ prototypical fieldwork and data quality procedures, and the technical assistance did not come from the LSMS group in the World Bank. Nonetheless, the goals are some what LSMS-like and the data is certainly worth archiving. They are therefore being entered into the LSMS archives to guarantee their future accessibility to World Bank and other users.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
1) Codes for some food and non-foods items were not available in the questionnaire or technical documents. The names of the products in this case were replaced with "item1", "item 2", etc.
2) Care has to be taken in using categorical variables. These variables (e.g. those with possible values of only 1 or 2), have zero values in place of the missing ones. Therefore, whenever there is a zero value for a categorical variable, it should be treated as missing. The same applies to most continuous numeric variables.
The 1996 Armenia Household Budget Survey covered the following topics:
- Family Characteristics and Housing
- Income from Employment
- Income from Self-Employment
- State Benefits
- Other Cash Income
- Aid (assistance)
- Savings, Assets and Loans
- General Economics Situation
- Land Ownership and Agricultural Produce
- Food in Stock (reserves)
- Expenditure for 30 days (recall method)
- "PAROS" social program
- Guests and Eating Out
- Daily Income and Expenditure Activities
Producers and sponsors
State Department of Statistics (SDS)
The State Department of Statistics specified 3 domains of interest for this study. These are Yerevan (the capital of ROA), Other Urban areas and Rural areas. Recent estimates of earthquake zones assigned almost equal populations to these domain zones of interest, and as a result there was no need for special targeting and no particular reason was implied for departing from a proportionate (or self-weighting) design.
A self-weighting sample was derived by selecting Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) with probability proportional to their size (where size is defined as the number of households) and then taking a constant number of households from each selected. The sample, therefore, was designed to be self-weighted and representative at the administrative regions (Marzes) level, for urban and rural areas, and within urban areas by the size of cities, and in rural areas by elevation. The number of households to be selected in each PSU was 20, so 250 PSUs were required to make up 5000 households.
Note: See detailed sample design and sample implementation information in the technical document, which is provided in this documentation.
Out of the 5,040 initially selected for the AHBS 96 survey, a total of 4,920 households were actually interviewed (i.e. 120 or 2.4% of the total sample either refused to answer or were not found). This makes AHBS 96 the largest one carried out in Armenia until that time and one with a very high response rate for a transition economy. The total number of individuals actually covered in the survey (members of the 4,920 households) was 20,088.
Out of the 4,920 households who answered questionnaires, 1,260 were systematically selected using the procedure discussed above to fill in the ‘household income and expenditure diary’
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The Armenia HBS 96 questionnaire was designed to collect information on several aspects of household behavior -- demographic composition, housing, health, consumption expenditures as well as income by source and employment. Information was collected about all the household members, not just about the head of the household alone.
The main household questionnaire used in Armenia HBS 96 contained 13 sections, each of which covered a separate aspect of household activity. The various sections of the household questionnaire are described below followed by a brief description of the diary used to record the daily income and expenditure activities of participating households. All households completed sections A through J, L, and M. Households selected to receive the recall method for expenditures completed section K as well; the remainder filled out the diary instead of being interviewed for section K.
A . FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSING:
This section collected basic demographic data such as name, age, sex, education, health, marital status and economic status of everyone living in the household, number of people in the household, etc. In addition, information collected included data on the type of educational institutions attended (private/public), special groups (disabled, single parents, orphan...), dwelling amenities and conditions of the household such as type of dwelling (apartment, house, hostel...) and available facilities (electricity, hot water, telephone...)
B. INCOME FROM EMPLOYMENT:
This section collected information on income from employment, type of industry each household member is engaged in, type of ownership of the organization where each person works, salary and other cash payments received, employment subsidies in terms of services (e.g. transport and health ). The recall period covers the 30 days prior to the interview date.
C. INCOME FROM SELF EMPLOYMENT:
This section collected information about self-employed persons, their income from selfemployment, costs of equipment and raw materials owned by their business, sector in which the individual is self-employed, etc. The recall period covers 30 days prior to the interview.
D. STATE BENEFITS:
This section included information on entitlements and receipt of state benefits such as pension, disability, child benefit, unemployment benefit, single-mother benefit, etc. during the last 30 days preceding the date of the interview.
E. OTHER CASH INCOMES:
Included in this section are approximate values of the various types of cash incomes such as those from sale of property, valuables, alimony, rent from properties, dividends and interest, help from relatives, etc. the household received during the last 30 days preceding the date of the interview.
F. AID (ASSISTANCE):
This section included information on whether food and non-food (e.g. medical help) assistance were received by the household in forms other than cash from friends, relatives, humanitarian organizations, etc. and the values of such assistance received during the last 30 days preceding the date of the interview.
G. SAVINGS, ASSETS AND LOANS:
This section collected information on savings, assets and loans made by the household to others, amount of borrowing from others, and the associated interest rates during the past 30 days.
H. GENERAL ECONOMIC SITUATION:
This section collected information about the current economic situation as perceived by the household, how it changed over the past 90 days and the household’s future expectations over the next 90 days.
I. LAND OWNERSHIP AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE:
This section collected information on the amount of land owned by the household in hectares, each crop type harvested and consumed, crop in storage for own household use, home produced food such as diary products, milk, eggs, etc. and animal stock. The recall period for this section generally is the current year, but for the value of household consumption, and crops sold in the market, it uses a recall period of the past 30 days.
J. FOOD IN STOCK (RESERVES):
This section collected data on the amount of food in stock the household currently has such as bread, meat, cereals vegetables, etc.
K. EXPENDITURE FOR 30 DAYS (RECALL METHOD):
This section collected expenditure information for the last 30 days on food purchases by item; clothing and foot wear for adults; children’s clothes; fabrics; household furniture, cars, carpets, and electrical appliances; household consumables such as soap and stationary; building materials, bathroom appliances and household tools; household utensils; household services; utilities; leisure activities; health; transport; education; domestic animals; land; tourism; and business activities.
This section collected information on whether anybody in the household worked outside Armenia for more than three months over the past five years; if the emigrating household member is still abroad and his/her final destination country.
M. "PAROS" social program:2
This section collected information on whether the household is in the PAROS program and points the family has in the PAROS system in their social passport.
Z. GUESTS AND EATING OUT
This section collected information on how many people ate in the household during the 30 days prior to the interview, how many times the household invited guests for dinner; and was invited; amount of food given to friends and relatives by the household. The codes for these variables are available in the data dictionary.
The diary questionnaire was used to collect daily income and expenditure activities of the participating households for 30 consecutive days during the interview period. It was administered to 25% of the households in the sample who also completed sections A through J, L and M from the household questionnaire. For participating households, this substitutes for section ‘K’ of the basic household questionnaire discussed above and has seven (7) sections. Participating households were instructed on the rules for keeping the diary namely: all expenditures should be recorded; the recording of information should be done every day; each person in the household should be covered; items brought by someone else into the household should be included; all food items whether bought, home produced or received for free should be recorded; wherever possible, documents and receipts should be used; and all non-food items and services as well as incomes should be recorded.
1 . PROVISIONS: This section records all purchased food brought home for consumption each day - whether it is consumed the same day or not.
2 . FOOD CONSUMPTION - Purchased: This section records consumption of purchased food by members of the household and guests each day (no matter when the purchase took place, this section included only the amount consumed that specific day).
3 . FOOD CONSUMPTION - Non - Purchased: This section records all non-purchased food and drinks ( home produced and gifts from family and friends) consumed by members of the household and guests each day.
4 . FOOD CONSUMPTION - Outside home: This section records all expenditure for eating outside home by members of the household each day such as dinner, coffee and cake, etc., and where the food was eaten.
5 . CONSUMER GOODS AND SERVICES - Purchased: This section records all purchased goods and services by the household each day. It includes non-food purchases such as clothing, visits to theaters or cinema, education fees, etc.
6 . CONSUMER GOODS AND SERVICES - Non - Purchased: This section records all non - purchased goods and services (freely received ) by the household each day.
7 . INCOME: This section records all types of income received by the household in each of the 30 days for which the diary is kept.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Armenia State Department of Statistics. Household Budget Survey (HBS) 1996. ARM_1996_HBS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
Production of metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (July 2015)
- Variable labels and value labels were added to most of the datasets
- Field "Version Description" updated