National Sample Survey 1993 (49th Round) - Schedule 0.21 - Particulars of Slum
Socio-Economic/Monitoring Survey [hh/sems]
Earlier, in the NSS 31st round, a nationwide survey on 'condition of slum areas in cities' was conducted covering a period of one year from July,1976 to June, 1977. The survey was restricted to all the class I cities of the whole of India having 1971 census population one lakh or more and to the two class II cities Shillong and Pondicherry having 1971 census population less than one lakh. Only the cities proper and not the urban agglomeration were considered for the survey coverage. For identifying 'undeclared slums', a slum was defined as an aerial unit having twenty five or more katcha structures mostly of temporary nature, or fifty or more households residing mostly in katcha structures, huddled together, or inhabited persons with practically no private latrine and inadequate public latrine and water facilities. The survey results were published in NSS report number 290 : "Condition of Slum Areas in Cities".
The second nationwide survey on particulars of slums was conducted by the NSSO in its 49th round enquiry (January - June 1993), which covered rural as well as urban areas.
A nationwide survey on "Particulars of Slums" was carried-out by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) during the period January-June, 1993 in its 49th round to ascertain the extent of civic facilities available in the slums. The 49th round survey among other objectives also collected data on the condition of slum dwellings as well as on some general particulars of slum areas. Apart from formulating the sampling design with an emphasis to obtain an adequate number of slum households for the survey on housing condition and migration, surveyed the slum areas and collected information on slums. The schedule 0.21 was canvassed in both the rural and urban areas. All the slums, both the declared ones as well as the others (undeclared), found in the selected first stage units were surveyed even if hamlet-group/sub-block selection was resorted to in some of then. To ascertain the extent of civic facilities available in the slums as well as the information regarding the improvement of slum condition during a period of last five years was also collected. Information was collected by contacting one or more knowledgeable persons in the FSU on the basis of predominant criterion in both declared and undeclared slums, and not through household approach.
-v1.0 : Re-organised, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
A nationwide survey on 'Particulars of slums' was conducted by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) in its 49th round covering a period of six months from January to June, 1993. Some general particulars like ownership, area type, type of structure, living facilities of the slums and their proximity to the nearest motorable road, primary school and hospital/health centre; change in the condition of slums during last five years etc. were collected. Information was collected by contacting one or more knowledgeable persons in the FSU on the basis of predominant criterion in both declared and undeclared slums, and not through household approach. However ,the information so obtained, was physically verified by the field officials to the extent possible. A compact area with a collection of poorly built tenements, mostly of temporary nature, crowded together usually with inadequate sanitary and drinking water facilities in unhygienic condi tions was considered as 'slum' in the 49th round. For the purpose of the survey, such an area was considered as 'undeclared slum', if at least 20 households live in that area. Certain areas declared as 'slums by respective municipalities, orporations, local bodies or development authorities have been treated as 'declared slums'. It is worth mentioning that the results reflect only the availability and not the adequacy of the facilities available in the slums.
The schedule on 'Particulars of Slum' (schedule 0.21) framed for the 49th round consisted of 5 blocks with the following themes:
Blocks 0 & 1: Identification particulars of the sample village/block having the slums for which the schedule was canvassed.
Block 2 : Recording the particulars of the field operations.
Block 3 : Any relevant remarks by the investigator.
Block 4 : Any comments by the supervisory officer(s)
Block 5 : Particulars about the slum including information as to whether the slum is a declared one or not , ownership, area type and location, type of structure, approach, road to the slum, type of road within the slum, living facilities, distance from the nearest motorable road, primary school, hospital and any improvement/ change in the condition of the slum during the last 5 years etc.
The geographical coverage of the survey was the whole of the Indian Union except Ladakh & Kargil districts of Jammu & Kashmir, 768 interior villages of Nagaland and 172 villages in Andaman & Nicobar islands which remain inaccessible throughout the year. However, certain districts of Jammu & Kashmir viz. Doda, Anantanag, Pulwama, Srinagar, Badgam, Barmula & Kupwara, as well as Amritsar district in Punjab, had to be excluded from the survey coverage due to unfavourable field conditions.
Producers and sponsors
National Sample Survey Office
Minsitry of Statistcs and Programme Implementation(MOSPI),Government of India (GOI)
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI) Government of India (GOI)
Data Processing and Dissemination
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India (GOI)
Governing Council and Working Group
Finalisation of Survey Study and Questionnaire
Sample Design : The first stage units in the rural sector and urban sector were census villages and urban frame survey (UFS) blocks respectively. However for newly declared towns of the 1991 census,for which UFS frames were not available, census EBs were used as first stage units.
Sampling frame for fsu's : In the rural sector, the sampling frame in most of the districts was the 1981 census list of villages. However, in Assam and in 8 districts of Madhya Pradesh, 1971 Census lists of villages were used. For Nagaland, the villages situated within 5 kms of a bus route constituted the sampling frame. For the Andaman & Nicobar islands the list of accessible villages was used as sampling frame. In the urban sector, the lists of NSS urban frame survey (UFS) blocks were the sampling frames used in most cases. However, 1991 Census house - listing enumeration blocks were considered as the sampling units for some of the newly declared towns of the 1991 population census, for which UFS frames were not available.
Stratification : Each state/u.t. was divided into one or more agro-economic regions by grouping contiguous districts which are similar with respect to population density and crop pattern. In Gujarat, however, some districts were subdivided for the purpose of region formation on the basis of location of dry areas and the distribution of tribal population in the state. The total number of regions formed in the whole of India was 78.
In the rural sector, within each region, each district with a rural population of less than 1.8 million according to the 1981 Census formed a single basic stratum. Districts with larger population were divided into two or more strata, depending on population, by grouping contiguous tehsils, similar as far as possible in respect of rural population density & crop pattern. In Gujarat, however, in the case of districts extending over more than one region, the portion of a district falling in each region constituted a separate stratum even if the rural population of the district as a whole was less than 1.8 million. Further, in Assam, the strata formed for the earlier NSS round on the basis of 1971 Census rural population exactly in the above manner, but with a cutoff point of 1.5 million population, were retained as the strata for rural sampling.
In the urban sector, strata were formed, within NSS regions, on the basis of 1981 (1991 in some of the new towns) Census population. Each city with a population of 10 lakhs or more formed a separate stratum itself. The remaining towns of each region were grouped to form three different strata on the basis of 1981 (1991 in a few cases) census population.
Sub stratification of urban strata : In order to be able to allocate a large proportion of the first stage sample to slum-dominated areas than would otherwise be possible, each stratum in the urban sector was divided into two "sub-strata" a s follows. Sub-stratum 1 was constituted of the UFS blocks in the stratum with a "slum area" indicated in the frame. Substratum 2 was constituted of the remaining blocks of the stratum.
Allocation of sample : A total all-India sample of 8000 first stage units (5072 villages and 2928 urban blocks) determined on the basis of investigator strength in different state/u.t's and the expected workload per investigator was first allocated to the states/u.t's in proportion to Central Staff available. The sample thus obtained for each state/u.t. was then allocated to its rural & urban sectors considering the relative sizes of the rural & urban population with double weightage for the urban sector. Within each sector of a state/u.t., the allotted sample size was reallocated to the different strata in proportion to stratum population. Stratum-level allocations were adjusted so that the sample size for a stratum (rural or urban) was at least a multiple of 4. This was done in order to have equal sized samples in each sub-sample and sub-round.
In the urban sector, stratum-level allocations were further allocated to the two sub-strata in proportion to the number of UFS blocks in the sub-strata, with double weightage to sub-stratum 1, with a minimum sample size of 4 blocks to sub-stratum 1 (2 if stratum allocation was only 4). Sub-stratum level allocations were made even in number.
Selection of fsu's : Sample villages except in Arunachal Pradesh were selected by pps systematic sampling with population as the size variable and sample blocks by simple random sampling without replacement. In both sectors the sample of fsu's was drawn in the form of two independent sub-samples. (In Arunachal Pradesh the sample of villages was drawn by a cluster sampling procedure. The field staff were supplied with a list of sample "nucleus" villages and were advised to select cluster of villages building up each cluster around a nucleus village according to prescribed guidelines. The nucleus villages were selected circular-systematically with equal probability in the form of two ) independent sub-samples.
1572 slums spread over 5072 villages and 2928 urban blocks in the sample have been surveyed.
Sample weights were calculated and included in each of the data files
Variable 'MLT_subsample' refers to Multiplier for each Subsample.
Variable 'MLT_combined' refers to Combined Multiplier.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The questionnaire consisted of 6 blocks (including 0) as given below :
Block - 0 : descriptive identification of sample village/block having slum
Block - 1 : identification of sample village/block having slum.
Block - 3 : Remarks by investigator.
Block - 4 : Comments by Supervisory Officer(s).
Block - 5 : Particulars about slum.
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
ADG, SDRD, NSSO
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI)
DDG, Computer Centre
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI)
Validated unit level data relating to various survey rounds are available on CD-ROMS which can be obtained from the Deputy Director General, Computer Centre, M/O Statistics and PI, East Block No. 10 R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110066 by remitting the price along with packaging and postal charges as well as giving an undertaking duly signed in a specified format.The amount is to be remitted by way of demand draft drawn in favour of Pay & Accounts Officer, Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation, payable at New Delhi.
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- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
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The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.