The Armenia 2005 Demographic and Health Survey (ADHS) is the second DHS survey carried out in Armenia. The first DHS survey was conducted in 2000.
The 2005 Armenia Demographic and Health Survey (2005 ADHS) is the second in a series of nationally representative sample surveys designed to provide information on population and health issues in Armenia. As in the 2000 ADHS, the primary goal of the 2005 survey was to develop a single integrated set of demographic and health data pertaining to the population of the Republic of Armenia. In addition to integrating measures of reproductive, child, and adult health, another feature of the 2005 ADHS survey is that the majority of data are presented at the marz (region) level.
The 2005 ADHS was conducted by the National Statistical Service (NSS) and the MOH of the Republic of Armenia from September through December 2005. ORC Macro provided technical support for the survey through the MEASURE DHS project. MEASURE DHS is a worldwide project, sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), with a mandate to assist countries in obtaining information on key population and health indicators. USAID/Armenia provided funding for the survey, while the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)/Armenia and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)/Armenia supported the survey through in-kind contributions.
The 2005 ADHS collected national- and regional-level data on fertility and contraceptive use, maternal and child health, adult health, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The survey obtained detailed information on these issues from women of reproductive age and, on certain topics, from men as well. Data are presented by marz wherever sample size permits.
The 2005 ADHS results are intended to provide the information needed to evaluate existing social programs and to design new strategies for improving the health of and health services for the people of Armenia. The 2005 ADHS also contributes to the growing international database on demographic and health-related variables.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
- Men age 15-49
The 2005 Armenia Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- Alcohol Consumption
- Anemia Testing
- Birth Registration
- Blood Pressure
- Full Pregnancy History–All surveys with the calendar and surveys that use DHS+ core questionnaire include a five-year calendar. Purpose to calculate abortion rates and neonatal rates if the calendar is not available.
- GPS/Georeferenced–Global Positioning System or Georeferenced Data
- HIV Behavior
- HIV Knowledge–Questions assess knowledge/sources of knowledge/ways to avoid HIV
- Iodine salt test
- Men's Survey
- Reproductive Calendar
- TB Questions
- Tobacco Use
- Vitamin A Questions
- Women's Status–Questions: women's autonomy (household decisionmaking/free movement/access money) & Domestic violence.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistical Service (NSS)
Ministry of Health (MOH)
United States Agency for International Development, Armenia
United Nations Children's Fund, Armenia
Providing technical and administrative support
United Nations Population Fund, Armenia
Providing in-kind support
The sample was designed to permit detailed analysis-including the estimation of rates of fertility, infant/child mortality, and abortion-for the national level, for Yerevan, and for total urban and total rural areas separately. Many indicators can also be estimated at the regional (marz) level.
A representative probability sample of 7,565 households was selected for the 2005 ADHS sample. The sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 308 clusters were selected from a list of enumeration areas in a subsample from a master sample that was designed from the 2001 Population Census. In the second stage, a complete listing of households was carried out in each selected cluster. Households were then systematically selected for participation in the survey.
All women age 15-49 who were either permanent residents of the households in the 2005 ADHS sample or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey were eligible to be interviewed. Interviews were completed with 6,566 women. In addition, in a subsample of one-third of all the households selected for the survey, all men age 15-49 were eligible to be interviewed if they were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey. Interviews were completed with 1,447 men.
Note: See detailed summarized sample implementation tables in APPENDIX A of the report which is presented in this documentation.
A total of 7,565 households were selected for the sample, of which 7,003 were occupied at the time of fieldwork. The main reason for the difference is that some of the dwelling units that were occupied during the household listing operation were either vacant or the household was away for an extended period at the time of interviewing. Of the occupied households, 96 percent were successfully interviewed.
In these households, 6,773 women were identified as eligible for the individual interview, and interviews were completed with 97 percent of them. Of the 1,630 eligible men identified, 89 percent were successfully interviewed. Response rates are almost identical in urban and rural areas.
Note: See summarized response rates by residence (urban/rural) in Table 1.1 of the report which is presented this documentation.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
TRAINING OF FIELD STAFF
The main survey training, which was conducted by the NSS, was held during a three-week period in August and was attended by all supervisors, field editors, interviewers, and quality control personnel. The training included lectures, demonstrations, practice interviewing in small groups, and examinations. The health technicians, who were recruited by the MOH, were trained separately during the same period. They received training in anthropometric measurement, anemia testing, and blood pressure measurement. All field staff participated in four days of field practice.
Thirteen teams collected the survey data; each team consisted of four female interviewers, a male interviewer, a field editor, and a team supervisor. A health technician was also assigned to each team. Fieldwork began in early September 2005 and was completed by early December 2005. Senior DHS technical staff visited teams regularly to review the work and monitor data quality.
Three questionnaires were used in the 2005 ADHS: a Household Questionnaire, a Women’s Questionnaire, and a Men’s questionnaire. The Household and Individual Questionnaires were based on model survey instruments developed in the MEASURE DHS program and on questionnaires used in the 2000 ADHS. The model questionnaires were adapted for use by experts from the NSS and MOH. Input was also sought from a number of non-governmental organizations. The questionnaires were developed in English and translated into Armenian. The Household and Individual Questionnaires were pretested in June 2005.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all usual members of and visitors to the selected households and to collect information on the socioeconomic status of the household. The first part of the Household Questionnaire collected information on the age, sex, educational attainment, and relationship to the household head of each household member or visitor. This information provides basic demographic data for Armenian households. It also was used to identify the women and men who were eligible for the individual interview (i.e., women and men age 15-49). In the second part of the Household Questionnaire, there were questions on housing characteristics (e.g., flooring material, source of water, type of toilet facilities), on ownership of a variety of consumer goods, and other questions relating to the socioeconomic status of the household. In addition, the Household Questionnaire was used to record height and weight measurements of women, men, and children under age five; hemoglobin measurement of women and children under age five; and blood pressure measurement of women and men.
The Women’s Questionnaire obtained data from women age 15-49 on the following topics:
• Background characteristics
• Pregnancy history
• Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care
• Knowledge, attitudes, and use of contraception
• Reproductive and adult health
• Health care utilization
• Vaccinations, birth registration, and health of children under age five
• Episodes of diarrhea and respiratory illness of children under age five
• Breastfeeding and weaning practices
• Marriage and recent sexual activity
• Fertility preferences
• Knowledge of and attitude toward HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections
The Men’s Questionnaire, administered to men age 15-49, focused on the following topics:
• Background characteristics
• Health and health care utilization
• Marriage and recent sexual activity
• Attitudes toward and use of condoms
• Knowledge of and attitude toward HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections
• Attitudes toward women’s status
The processing of the 2005 ADHS results began shortly after the fieldwork commenced. Completed questionnaires were returned regularly from the field to NSS headquarters in Yerevan, where they were entered and edited by data processing personnel who were specially trained for this task. The data processing personnel included a supervisor, a questionnaire administrator who ensured that the expected number of questionnaires from all clusters were received, several office editors, 10 data entry operators, and a secondary editor. The concurrent processing of the data was an advantage because the senior ADHS technical staff were able to advise field teams of problems detected during the data entry. In particular, tables were generated to check various data quality parameters. As a result, specific feedback was given to the teams to improve performance. The data entry and editing phase of the survey was completed in January 2006.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimates derived from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: 1) non-sampling errors, and 2) sampling errors. Non-sampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2005 Armenia DHS (2005 ADHS) to minimize this type of error, non-sampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 2005 ADHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2005 ADHS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use a more complex formula. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 2005 ADHS is the sampling error module in ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis). This module uses the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. Another approach, the Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX B of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar year since birth
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX C of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Data and Data Related Resources
MEASURE DHS believes that widespread access to survey data by responsible researchers has enormous advantages for the countries concerned and the international community in general. Therefore, MEASURE DHS policy is to release survey data to researchers after the main survey report is published, generally within 12 months after the end of fieldwork. with few limitations these data have been made available for wide use.
DISTRIBUTION OF DATASETS
MEASURE DHS is authorized to distribute, at no cost, unrestricted survey data files for legitimate academic research, with the condition that we receive a description of any research project that will be using the data.
Registration is required for access to data.
Datasets are available for download to all registered users, free of charge. To download datasets, you must first register online and request the country(ies) and datasets that you are interested in. When submitting a dataset request, users must include a brief description of how the data will be used.
Datasets are made available with the following conditions:
- Survey data files are distributed by MEASURE DHS for academic research/statistical analysis. Researchers need to provide a description of any research/analysis that will be using the data, before access is granted to the datasets.
- Once downloaded, the datasets must not be passed on to other researchers without the written consent of MEASURE DHS.
- All reports and publications based on the requested data must be sent to the MEASURE DHS Data Archive as a Portable Format Document (pdf) or a hard copy, for us to forward to the country(ies) whose data have been used.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Armenia National Statistical Service, Ministry of Health [Armenia], and ORC Macro. Armenia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2005. Ref. ARM_2005_DHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.