The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 4 (MICS4) is the forth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), and 2005-2007 (MICS3). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fourth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS4) is scheduled for 2009-2011 and survey results are expected to be available from 2010 onwards. MICS4 data allow countries to better monitor progress toward national goals and global commitments, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as the target year 2015 approaches.
Information on more than 20 of the MDG indicators is being collected through MICS4, offering one of the largest single sources of data for MDG monitoring. MICS4 continues to address emerging issues and new areas of interest, with validated, standard methodologies in collecting relevant data. It also helps countries capture rapid changes in key indicators.
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPR Korea) Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2009) was carried out in 2009 by the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) of DPR Korea with financial and technical support from the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The MICS 2009 survey provides valuable information on the situation of children and women in DPR Korea, and was based on the need to monitor progress towards goals and targets resulting from recent international agreements: the United Nations Millennium Declaration, adopted by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the Plan of Action of A World Fit For Children, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. Both of these commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children. MICS 2009 is part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys (MICS4). It follows the national nutrition survey in 2004 and previous MICS conducted in DPR Korea in 1998 and 2000. For the first time, MICS 2009 surveyed all 10 provinces of DPR Korea.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household: Household Listing Form, Education, Water and Sanitation, Hand Washing and Salt Iodization.
- Women: Woman's Background, Maternal and Newborn Health, Illness Symptoms, HIV/AIDS and Anthropometry.
- Children under five: Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Vitamin A, Breastfeeding, Care of Illness and Anthropometry.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all children under 5 living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics of DPR Korea
United Nations Children’s Fund
Ministry of Public Health
Ministry of Land and Environment Protection
Ministry of City Management
Institute of Children’s Nutrition
Provincial Statistics Offices
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
UNICEF Asia Pacific
The primary objective of the sample design for the DPR Korea MICS 2009 was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for all 10 provinces of DPR Korea, namely Ryanggang, North Hamgyong, South Hamgyong, Kangwon, Jagang, North Phyongan, South Phyongan, North Hwanghae, South Hwanghae, and Pyongyang. Urban and rural areas in each of the ten provinces were defined as the sampling strata.
A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The target sample size for the DPR Korea MICS was calculated as 7,500 households. For the calculation of the sample size, the key indicator used was the Exclusive breast feeding among children less than 6 months old.
Equal allocation of the total sample size to the ten provinces was used. Therefore, 30 clusters were allocated to each province, with the final sample size calculated at 7 500 households (30 clusters * 10 provinces * 25 sample households per cluster). In each province, the clusters (primary sampling units) were distributed to urban and rural domains, proportional to the size of urban and rural populations in that province. The table below shows the allocation of clusters to the sampling strata.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Democratic People's Republic of Korea Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009 - Final Report" pp.90-93.
Of the 7,500 households selected for the sample, 7,500 were found to be occupied. Of these, 7,496 were successfully interviewed, for a response rate of 99.9 percent. In the interviewed households, 8,249 women (aged 15-49 years) of 8,253 identified were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 100 percent. In addition, questionnaires were completed for 2,172 of 2,175 children under age five listed in the household questionnaire, a response rate of 99.9 percent within interviewed households. Overall response rates of 99.9 percent and 99.8 percent are calculated for the women’s and under-5 interviews, respectively.
Sample weights were calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data.
The major component of the weight is the reciprocal of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in that particular sampling stratum and PSU. The sampling fraction for the sample PSU in the stratum is the product of probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum.
A second component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non-response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse value of: RRh = Number of interviewed households in stratum h/ Number of occupied households listed in stratum h
After the completion of fieldwork, response rates were calculated for each sampling stratum. These were used to adjust the sample weights calculated for each cluster.The non-response adjustment factors for women's and under-5's questionnaires are applied to the adjusted household weights. Numbers of eligible women and under-5 children were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed.
The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal the total sample size at the national level. Normalization is performed by dividing the aforementioned design weights by the average design weight at the national level. The average design weight is calculated as the sum of the design weights divided by the unweighted total). A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining standardized weights for the women’s and under-5’s questionnaires. Adjusted (normalized) weights varied between 0.212291 and 2.454879 in the 300 sample enumeration areas (clusters).
Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting each household, woman or under-5 with these sample weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for each of the 20 survey teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Trainers were trained for four days in Pyongyang 6-10 September, 2009. The training sessions, facilitated by Mr. Muhammad Shuaib, MICS consultant, included 15 participants (12 from CBS, 2 from ICN and 1 from the Academy of Medicine Science).
Training for fieldwork was conducted for 11 days in September 2009. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent three days in practice interviewing in Moranbong and Mangyongdae districts of Pyongyang.
The data were collected by 20 six-person teams of three interviewers, one driver, one editor/measurer4 and one supervisor. Fieldwork began September 2009 and concluded in October 2009. In the evening before or in the morning of the enumeration, selected households received notification that they would be visited. It was recommended to household members, especially women aged 15-49 and children under five years, that they stay home on those days. UNICEF and World Food Programme (WFP) staff – both national and international – participated in field monitoring in October.
Central Bureau of Statistics of DPR Korea
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS4 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered to a knowledgeable adult living in the household. The household questionnaire includes Household Listing Form, Education, Water and Sanitation, Hand Washing and Salt Iodization.
In addition to a household questionnaire, the Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women aged 15-49 years living in the households. The women's questionnaire includes Woman's Background, Maternal and Newborn Health, Illness Symptoms, HIV/AIDS and Anthropometry.
The Questionnaire for Children Under Five was administered to mothers or caretakers of children under 5 years of age1 living in the households. The children's questionnaire includes Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Vitamin A, Breastfeeding, Care of Illness and Anthropometry.
Data were entered on 20 microcomputers using the standard UNICEF Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro) software by 20 data entry operators. Data entry was done in the field at the time of data collection and then brought to Pyongyang. Data was entered individually in the field, therefore data entry supervision was not valid. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Two data processing supervisors checked data quality. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS4 programme and adapted to the DPR Korea questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in September 2009 and was completed in November 2009. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 18, and model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
- Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deff) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deff value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deff value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 18 Complex Samples module has been used. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator.
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. One of the selected indicators are based on households, 6 are based on household members, 8 are based on women, and 15 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires
- Women's completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completion rates for under-five questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completeness of reporting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators
- Heaping in anthropometric measurements
- Observation of places for handwashing
- Observation of children under 5 birth certificates
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- School attendance by single age
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Democratic People's Republic of Korea Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009 - Final Report" pp.112-120.
The World Bank Microdata Library
The World Bank
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United Nations Children's Fund, Central Bureau of Statistics of DPR Korea. Democratic People's Republic of Korea Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2009, Ref. PRK_2009_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
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