The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 4 (MICS4) is the forth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), and 2005-2007 (MICS3). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fourth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS4) is scheduled for 2009-2011 and survey results are expected to be available from 2010 onwards. MICS4 data allow countries to better monitor progress toward national goals and global commitments, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as the target year 2015 approaches.
Information on more than 20 of the MDG indicators is being collected through MICS4, offering one of the largest single sources of data for MDG monitoring. MICS4 continues to address emerging issues and new areas of interest, with validated, standard methodologies in collecting relevant data. It also helps countries capture rapid changes in key indicators.
The Mombasa Informal Settlement Survey 2009 is a representative sample survey drawn using the informal settlement classification of 1999 Census Enumeration Areas (EAs) as the sample frame. The classification of 1999 Census EAs was carried out in major cities of Kenya by the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) under a project funded by United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in 2003. The 45 EAs were sampled using the probability proportional to size sampling methodology, and information from a total of 1,080 households were collected using structured questionnaires. The Mombasa informal settlement survey is one of the largest household sample surveys ever conducted exclusively for the informal settlements in Mombasa district.
The survey used a two-stage design. In the first stage, EAs were selected and in the second stage households were selected circular systematically using a random start from the list of households. The data was collected by three teams comprising of six members each (one supervisor, one editor, one measurer and three investigators).
The objective of the Mombasa Informal Settlement Survey 2009 is to provide estimates relating to the wellbeing of children and women living in the informal settlements of Mombasa, to create baseline information and to enable policymakers, planners, researchers, and program managers to take actions based on credible evidence. In Mombasa Informal Settlement Survey 2009, information on specific areas such as reproductive health, child mortality, child health, nutrition, child protection, childhood development, water and sanitation, hand washing practices, education, and HIV/AIDS and orphans were collected. The results indicate that the conditions of people living in the informal settlements are very poor and need immediate attention.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household: Household Listing, Education, Water and Sanitation, Indoor Residual Spraying, Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets (ITN), Children Orphaned & Made Vulnerable By HIV/AIDS, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Disability, Handwashing Facility, and Salt Iodization.
- Women: Child Mortality, Birth history, Tetanus Toxoid, Maternal and Newborn Health, Marriage/Union, Contraception, Attitude towards Domestic Violence, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Sexual Behaviour and HIV/AIDS.
- Children under five: Birth Registration and Early Learning, Childhood Development, Vitamin A, Breastfeeding, Care of Illness, Malaria, Immunization, and Anthropometry.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all children under 5 living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
United Nations Children’s Fund
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
The primary objective of the sample design for the Mombasa Informal Settlement Survey, Kenya (MICS4) was to produce statistically reliable estimates of development indicators related to children and women living in the informal settlements of Mombasa. A two-stage cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The target sample size for the Mombasa Informal Settlement Survey was calculated as 1,080 households. For the calculation of the sample size, the key indicator used was proportion of institutional deliveries.
The resulting number of households from this exercise was 1,074 households which is the sample size needed, however, it was decided to cover 1,080 households. The average cluster size was determined as 24 households, based on a number of considerations, including the budget available, and the time that would be needed per team to complete one cluster. This implies a total of 45 clusters for the Mombasa informal settlement survey.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Kenya Mombasa Informal Settlements Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009 - Report" pp.95-96.
Of the 1,080 households selected for the sample, 1,076 were found occupied. Of these, 1,016 were successfully interviewed yielding a household response rate of 94.4 percent. In the interviewed households, 878 women (age 15-49) were identified and information collected from 821 women in these households, yielding a response rate of 93.5 percent. In addition, 464 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire, and information on 454 children were obtained, which corresponds to a response rate of 97.8 percent. Overall response rates of 88.3 and 92.4 are calculated for the women's and under-5's interviews respectively.
The Mombasa Informal Settlement Survey sample is self-weighted. However, weights were calculated for adjusting the non-response rates and applied separately to the household, women and child data sets.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for each of the 4 household listing teams and there is one supervisor for each of the 3 data collection teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Training for the fieldwork was conducted in two parts, two days training for the mapping and listing teams and 10 days training for the main survey teams in January-February 2009. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent one full day in practice interviewing in different locations in Mombasa and the neighboring district of Kwale. The training sessions were facilitated by experts and staff from UNICEF HQ, UNICEF Regional Office for Eastern and Southern Africa/MICS Unit and KNBS.
The household listing was carried out by four teams. Each team comprised of a lister and mapper, and one supervisor for the four teams. The whole listing operation was monitored by the KNBS staff from headquarters and Mombasa. Further, a few UNICEF professionals who were involved in the MICS4 Global Pilot exercise also made field monitoring visits to oversee the household listing operations.
The data were collected by three teams; each was comprised of three interviewers, one editor, one measurer and a supervisor. Each team was provided with a vehicle along with driver for the field work operations. Fieldwork was carried out during February-March 2009 in which the initial 8-9 days were spent in collecting information from the MICS4 Global Pilot clusters.
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS4 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered to a knowledgeable adult living in the household. The household questionnaire includes Household Listing, Education, Water and Sanitation, Indoor Residual Spraying, Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets (ITN), Children Orphaned & Made Vulnerable By HIV/AIDS, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Disability, Handwashing Facility, and Salt Iodization.
In addition to a household questionnaire, the Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women aged 15-49 years living in the households. The women's questionnaire includes Child Mortality, Birth history, Tetanus Toxoid, Maternal and Newborn Health, Marriage/Union, Contraception, Attitude towards Domestic Violence, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Sexual Behaviour and HIV/AIDS.
The Questionnaire for Children Under-Five was administered to mothers or caretakers of children under 5 years of age living in the households. The children's questionnaire includes Birth Registration and Early Learning, Childhood Development, Vitamin A, Breastfeeding, Care of Illness, Malaria, Immunization, and Anthropometry.
Data were entered using the CSPro software. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed, and the whole process was monitored initially by the MICS Global data processing specialist, followed by KNBS data processing expert. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS project and adapted to the modified questionnaire were used throughout. Data entry began simultaneously with data collection in February 2009 and was completed at the end of March 2009. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were customized for this purpose.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey results.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator.
- Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistics will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (p + 2.se or p - 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from the survey data, SPSS Version 17 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and un-weighted counts of denominators for each indicator.
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest. Three of the selected indicators are based on households, 10 are based on household members, 14 are based on women, and 14 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed under-5s
- Age distribution of under-five children
- Heaping on ages and periods
- Completeness of reporting
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
- Distribution of women by time since last birth
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Kenya Mombasa Informal Settlements Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009 - Report" pp.102-109.
The World Bank Microdata Library
The World Bank
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United Nations Children's Fund, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Kenya Mombasa Informal Settlements Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2009, Ref. KEN_2009_MICS-MIS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
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