The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 4 (MICS4) is the forth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), and 2005-2007 (MICS3). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fourth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS4) is scheduled for 2009-2011 and survey results are expected to be available from 2010 onwards. MICS4 data allow countries to better monitor progress toward national goals and global commitments, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as the target year 2015 approaches.
Information on more than 20 of the MDG indicators is being collected through MICS4, offering one of the largest single sources of data for MDG monitoring. MICS4 continues to address emerging issues and new areas of interest, with validated, standard methodologies in collecting relevant data. It also helps countries capture rapid changes in key indicators.
The Kazakhstan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4) was conducted in 2010-2011 by the Agency of Statistics, RK primarily with technical and financial support of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and co-financing of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The survey provides valuable information on the situation of children, women and men in Kazakhstan, and was based, in large part, on the needs to monitor progress towards goals and targets emanating from recent international agreements: the Millennium Declaration, adopted by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the Plan of Action of a World Fit For Children, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. Both of these commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household: Household Listing Form, Education, Water and Sanitation, Household Characteristics, Child Discipline, and Salt Iodization.
- Women: Women’s Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Child Mortality, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Tobacco and Alcohol Use, and Domestic Violence.
- Men: Men’s Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Contraception, Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Circumcision, Tobacco and Alcohol Use
- Children under five: Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding, Care of Illness, Immunization and Anthropometry.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all men aged between 15-59 years and all children under 5 living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Agency of Statistics
Republic of Kazakhstan
United Nations Children’s Fund
United Nations Population Fund
United Nations Children’s Fund
Technical and financial support
United Nations Population Fund
Technical and financial support
The primary objective of the sample design for the Kazakhstan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MICS4 was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, for urban and rural areas at the national level, and for the following regional domains: Akmola, Aktobe, Atyrau, Almaty, East Kazakhstan, Zhambyl, West Kazakhstan, Karaganda, Kostanai, Kyzylorda, Mangistau, Pavlodar, North Kazakhstan, South Kazakhstan Oblasts and Astana and Almaty cities.
Urban and rural areas in each of the 16 regions including Astana and Almaty cities were defined as the sampling strata. A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The target sample size for the Kazakhstan MICS was calculated as 16,380 households. The population of each Oblast was divided into two strata, urban and rural areas, and the sample households were selected in three stages. Within each stratum, enumeration areas (EAs) were selected systematically with probability proportional to size. At the second sampling stage the larger EAs were divided into smaller segments, and one segment was selected in sample EA. After the household listing was carried out within the selected EAs or segments, a sample of 21 households was drawn in each sample EA.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Kazakhstan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 - Report" pp.243-250.
Of the 16,380 households selected for the sample, 16,018 were found to be occupied. Of these, 15,800 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 98.6 percent. In the interviewed households 14,228 women (age 15-49) were identified. Of these, 14,014 women were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 98.5 percent. For men (age 15-59), these indicators were 4,043 – listed, 3,846 – successfully interviewed that gives response rate at 95.1 percent. In addition, 5,227 children under-5 were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 5,181 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 99.1 percent. Overall response rates of 97.2 percent and 97.8 percent are calculated for 15-49-year-old women’s and under-5’s interviews respectively. This response rate calculated for men aged 15-59 was 93.8 percent.
The sample is not self-weighting. For reporting national level results, sample weights are used.
Lists of households were prepared by the listing teams in the field for each enumeration area. The households were then sequentially numbered from 1 to n (the total number of households in each enumeration area) at the Information and Computer Centre of the Agency of Statistics, RK where the selection of 21 households in each enumeration area was carried out using a random systematic selection procedure.
Households were selected to achieve a fixed sample take per cluster. However, since the MICS 2010/2011 sample was not allocated proportionately among domain areas, the weights were calculated based on the inverse of the probabilities of selection, which vary by stratum and sample PSU to provide estimates at the national domain of study.
In a given domain for the i-th cluster, if (c) is the fixed number of households selected out of the total households (Li) -found in the 2010 listing process – then the household probability in the selected i-th cluster can be expressed as P3i = (c /Li)
The final overall probability for the sample households in the i-th cluster could be calculated as fi = P1i * P2i * P3i
And the sampling design weight for the i-th cluster is given as 1/ fi = 1/ (P1i * P2i * P3i)
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for each of the 16 survey teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
The preparation of the Agency of Statistics, RK staff involved in Kazakhstan MICS4 was carried out by UNICEF headquarters in New York and UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS countries who organized their participation in regional training seminars in 2009-2011 (2009 – Amman (Jordan); 2010, 2011 – Istanbul (Turkey); 2010 – Belgrade (Serbia). Training seminar programmes focused on sampling design, survey logistics and budget planning; themes for certain MICS4 questionaire modules, MICS indicators, data and tabulation processing as well as MICS results dissemination.
Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 12 days in September 2010. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent 2 days in practice interviewing in Schuchye in Akmola Oblast.
The data were collected by 16 teams; each was comprised of 6 interviewers (of them 5 women and 1 man who was simultaneously measuring children’s weight and height), one driver, one editor, one measurer and a supervisor. Fieldwork began in November 2010 and concluded in January 2011.
Agency of Statistics
Republic of Kazakhstan
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS4 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered to a knowledgeable adult living in the household. The household questionnaire includes Household Listing Form, Education, Water and Sanitation, Household Characteristics, Child Discipline, and Salt Iodization.
In addition to a household questionnaire, the Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women aged 15-49 years living in the households. The women's questionnaire includes Women's Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Child Mortality, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Tobacco and Alcohol Use, and Domestic Violence.
The Questionnaire for Individual Men was administered to each third man among all men aged 15-59 living in the households. The men's questionnaire includes Men's Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Contraception, Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, HIV/AIDS, Circumcision, Tobacco and Alcohol Use.
The Questionnaire for Children Under-Five was administered to mothers or caretakers of children under 5 years of age1 living in the households. The children's questionnaire includes Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding, Care of Illness, Immunization and Anthropometry.
The data were entered on 18 computers and carried out by 14 data entry operators and 4 data entry supervisors (including 2 editors) using the CSPro software. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS4 programme and adapted to the Kazakhstan questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in November 2010. Data entry was completed in the end of January 2011; processing and editing of the primary database was completed in July – August 2011. In August 2011 the results of preliminary MICS4 analysis were presented to concerned authorities (representatives of various ministries and agencies) as well as international organizations. The tables in certain new modules (for instance on Domestic Violence and Abortions) and the Questionnaire for Individual Men were discussed and corrected with the help of UNICEF international consultants up until the end of 2011.
Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software programme, Version 18, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF and adapted to the Kazakhstan questionnaires by a software expert from the Information and Computer Centre of the Agency of Statistics, Republic of Kazakhstan.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
- Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 18 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator.
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. One of the selected indicators is based on households, 5 are based on household members, 18 are based on women, 10 are based on men, and 17 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Percentage of selected households for men interviews and percentage of interviewed men by area and region
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires
- Women's completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Men’s completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completion rates for under-five questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completeness of reporting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators
- Accumulation in the results of anthropometric measurements
- Observation of children under 5 birth certificates
- Observation of vaccination cards
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- Selection of children age 2-14 years for the child discipline module
- School attendance by one-year age group
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Kazakhstan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 - Report" pp.295-306.
The World Bank Microdata Library
The World Bank
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United Nations Children's Fund, Agency of Statistics, Republic of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2010, Ref. KAZ_2010_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
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