The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 4 (MICS4) is the forth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), and 2005-2007 (MICS3). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fourth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS4) is scheduled for 2009-2011 and survey results are expected to be available from 2010 onwards. MICS4 data allow countries to better monitor progress toward national goals and global commitments, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as the target year 2015 approaches.
Information on more than 20 of the MDG indicators is being collected through MICS4, offering one of the largest single sources of data for MDG monitoring. MICS4 continues to address emerging issues and new areas of interest, with validated, standard methodologies in collecting relevant data. It also helps countries capture rapid changes in key indicators.
The Ghana-Accra Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4) was conducted in 2010-2011 by the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) at the University of Ghana. The survey was carried out in 5 high densely populated localities of Accra with the primary objective of providing up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in these areas. Financial and technical support was provided by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The Ghana Urban MICS was conducted as part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys (MICS4). MICS is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF to provide up-to-date information on the situation of children and women and measures key indicators that allow countries to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household: Household Listing Form, Education, Water and Sanitation, Household Characteristics, Insecticide Treated Nets, Indoor Residual Spraying, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Handwashing and Salt Iodization.
- Women: Women's Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Child Mortality (however, given the small sample size, indicators for child mortality have not been included in this report), Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Post-Natal Health Checks, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, National Health Insurance and HIV/AIDS.
- Children under five: Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding, Care of Illness, Malaria, Immunization and Anthropometry.
- Men: Men's Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Marriage/Union, Attitudes Towards Contraception, Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence, Sexual Behaviour, National Health Insurance and HIV/AIDS.
Five high population density localities, namely Nima, New Town, James Town, La and Bubuashie.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all men aged between 15-59 years and all children under 5 living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research
United Nations Children’s Fund
Ghana Statistical Service
Provide Population and Housing Census Sampling Frame
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
The primary objective of the sample design for the Ghana-Accra Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators for these high density population suburbs of Accra.
A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The target sample size for the Accra MICS was calculated as 1,500 households. For the calculation of the sample size, the key indicator used was full immunization among children aged 12-23 months using the results from the 2006 national MICS. This indicator yielded the largest sample size among 5 potential indicators considered, the others being BCG, Polio 3, MMR and DPT coverage.
The resulting number of households from this calculation was 1,266 households, which was the minimum sample size required to achieve the desired level of accuracy. Since the calculated sample size is not too far from the previous proposed size that is 1500, the decision is made to maintain this first proposal. Primary allocation of the total sample size to the five localities was done using probability proportional to size with the EAs serving as the primary sampling units. The national practice is to select 15 households from each EA for such household surveys and therefore, 100 EAs were required to meet the computed sample size of 1,500.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Ghana-Accra Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 - Report" pp.134.-138.
Of the 1,500 households selected for the sample, 1,453 were found to be occupied. Of these, 1,409 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 97 percent. In the interviewed households, 1,427 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 1,294 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 91 percent within interviewed households. In addition, 472 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 453 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 96 percent within interviewed households. Similarly, out of the 688 eligible men identified, 607 were successfully interviewed, giving a response rate of 88 percent. Overall response rates of 88 percent, 93 percent and 86 percent are calculated for the women’s, under-5’s and men’s interviews respectively.
The sample is not self-weighting since the probability of selection of the households is not the same across the EAs and localities.
At first stage, m primary units or clusters are selected in stratum h according to systematic pps sampling. At second stage, a constant number n of households is selected according to simple systematic sampling for each PU or cluster selected in stratum h.
For men's questionnaire, all eligible men should not be interviewed in all households chosen at the sampling second stage. A subsample will be chosen from the 1500 households selected at the second stage.
Taking into account all non responses observed at the first sampling stage and those found at the second sampling stage, gross sampling weights and normalized sampling weights have been calculated in an appropriate Excel sheet developed for this purpose. This Excel sheet is provided on the www.childinfo.org. All formulae are put in this sheet and for calculations one needs only to put the right data in the right cells.
Gross sampling weights and normalized sampling weights were used for tables' production.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for each of the 5 survey teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 13 days from October 27th through to November 12th, 2010. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking the questions. Participants were taken through the process of salt testing and the anthropometric measurements so that they could assist the measures whenever desired. Participants were also taken through the various versions of immunization cards that have been used in the country over the past 5 years and how the recording of the immunization regimens have changed over time. Special training sessions were held with the selected supervisors on how to complete the cluster control sheets, as well as training on reading the maps of the selected EAs so that they could facilitate the easy identification of households. Most importantly, they were trained on questionnaire control and consistency checking.
Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent 2 days in practice interviewing at Madina Zongo and Bawaleshie, two communities that have similar characteristics to the target communities. The final day involved a debriefing section where experiences and challenges were discussed and the procedure for redress as outlined in the MICS protocols were emphasized.
The data were collected by 5 teams; each was comprised of 4 interviewers, one measurer and a supervisor who doubled as the field editor. Fieldwork began on 10th December 2010 and concluded on January 28 in 2011. Given that the 2010 Population and Housing Census had just commenced, it took longer than anticipated to get the updated listing of EAs, and this delayed the commencement of the fieldwork after the training had been completed.
Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research
The questionnaires for the Generic MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS4 model questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Household questionnaires were administered to a knowledgeable adult living in the household. The household questionnaire includes Household Listing Form, Education, Water and Sanitation, Household Characteristics, Insecticide Treated Nets, Indoor Residual Spraying, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Handwashing and Salt Iodization.
In addition to a household questionnaire, the Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women aged 15-49 years living in the households. The women's questionnaire includes Women's Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Child Mortality (however, given the small sample size, indicators for child mortality have not been included in this report), Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health, Post-Natal Health Checks, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Unmet Need, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence, Marriage/Union, Sexual Behaviour, National Health Insurance and HIV/AIDS.
The Questionnaire for Children Under-Five was administered to mothers or caretakers of children under 5 years of age1 living in the households. The children's questionnaire includes Age, Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding, Care of Illness, Malaria, Immunization and Anthropometry.
The Questionnaire for Individual Men was administered to each third man among all men aged 15-59 living in the households. The men's questionnaire includes Men's Background, Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology, Marriage/Union, Attitudes Towards Contraception, Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence, Sexual Behaviour, National Health Insurance and HIV/AIDS.
Data were entered using the CSPro software. The data were entered on 14 microcomputers and carried out by 14 data entry operators under the supervision of 4 data entry supervisors. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS4 programme and adapted to the final questionnaires were used throughout. Data processing began two weeks after data collection in December 2010 and was completed in February 2011. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 18, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were used for this purpose, after amending to take into account the changes/additions to the Questionnaires.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
- Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 18 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator.
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. Three of the selected indicators are based on households, 8 are based on household members, 13 are based on women, and 15 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires
- Women's completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completion rates for under-five questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completeness of reporting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators
- Heaping in anthropometric measurements
- Observation of bednets and places for hand washing
- Observation of women's health cards
- Observation of children under 5 birth certificates
- Observation of vaccination cards
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- Selection of children age 2-14 years for the child discipline module
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Ghana-Accra Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 - Report" pp.147-157.
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The World Bank
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