The periodicity of the LFCLS is 5 years and the last survey was carried out in 2004 and thus the next was supposed to be in 2009. In July 2008, a stakeholder consensus building workshop was conducted in preparation for the LFCLS which was supposed to take off in 2009. The survey did not go according to plan because of economic challenges that the country was facing. The workshop, attended by representatives from Government ministries/departments, parastatals, trade unions, UNICEF and ILO, was to discuss the questionnaire, manuals and the tabulation plan in order to firm up on survey instruments while at the same time fostering a common understanding of the process involved.
The 2011 Labour Force and Child Labour Survey (LFCLS) is a component of the National Household Surveys Capability Programme designed to monitor living conditions. The LFCLS provides socioeconomic indicators useful in monitoring living conditions as well as providing in-depth information on the labour force in Zimbabwe. It seeks to accurately determine the current activity status of the population: who is economically active and who is not? Statistics on the size and composition of the two groups are key to formulating economic and social policies and related planning and research. The survey, therefore, focuses on social and economic characteristics, in particular, status in employment, industry, occupation, place of work and social security.
Preparations for the LFCLS were done by an internal committee which was set up in February 2008 to spearhead, guide and participate in the activities from design of survey instruments to dissemination. Representatives from the then Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare, National Social Security Authority (NSSA), the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) were co-opted into the committee in recognition of their special needs for labour market information.
Objectives of the Survey
The primary objectives are to provide information on:
(a) The number of people classified according to their activity status
(b) The size and characteristics of the economically active population, that is, the employed and the unemployed.
(c) Informal sector employment and informal employment
(e) The number of working children
(f) Detrimental effects of work on children
(g) Living conditions in general.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Producers and sponsors
Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT)
Ministry of Labour and Social Services
Support to survey design and analysis
National Social Security Authority
Support to survey design and analysis
International Labour Organization
United Nations Children’s Fund
The sampling frame used for the 2011 LFCLS was the 2002 Zimbabwe Master Sample (ZMS02) developed by the then Central Statistical Office after the 2002 Population Census. With the exception of Harare and Bulawayo, each of the other eight provinces was stratified into four strata according to land use: Communal Lands, Large Scale Commercial Farming Areas (LSCFA), Urban and Semi-Urban Areas, and Small Scale Commercial Farming Areas (SSCFA) and Resettlement Areas. Only one urban stratum was formed each in Harare and Bulawayo. This gave a total of 34 strata.
The survey used a two-stage sample design with EAs as the first and households as the second stage sampling units. In total 400 EAs were selected with probability proportional to size (PPS), the measure of size being the number of households enumerated in the 2002 Population Census. The selection of the EAs was a systematic, one-stage operation, carried out independently for each of the 34 strata. A complete listing of the households in the selected EAs was carried out and the list of households used as the frame for the second-stage systematic random selection of households.
The 2011 LFCLS had a sample size of 10 014 households. Each enumerator was assigned two EAs within the 21 days of data collection. Enumerators assigned urban EAs covered 21 households per EA whilst those assigned rural EAs covered 27 households per EA. No substitutions of non-responding households were done in this survey. If a dwelling unit was found being occupied by a different household then that household was interviewed in place of the listed one. If a dwelling unit had been destroyed and the household was still staying or living within the same EA, the household was followed and interviewed.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Listing and Mapping Training
A one day training of Mappers and Team Leaders for listing and mapping of households was conducted by Provincial Supervisors in their respective provinces on 24 March, 2011. Listing of households was conducted from 25 March to 2 April 2011, where 37 Team Leaders and 201 Mappers completed listing of 400 Enumeration Areas (EAs) in 5 days.
The survey instruments for the LFCLS were pre-tested in Kadoma from 2 to 7 May, 2011. During the pre-test, three days were devoted to theory and two to field practice. During the two days of field practice, each participant interviewed a minimum of four households. The pre-test was conducted in two selected localities (1 urban and 1 rural) to test the entirety of the survey procedures. Based on the results of the pre-test, further modifications to the wording and flow of the questionnaire were done.
Training of Enumerators
In addition to the pre-test training, the main fieldwork training was held from 30 May to 7 June, 2011. The workshop was attended by 262 participants from ZIMSTAT Head Office and Provincial Offices, technical committee members from Ministry of Labour and Social Services and NSSA. An assessment test and class exercises were done to assess the enumerators on the content of the questionnaires and the field procedures. Sessions of translating questionnaires from English to the main local languages of Shona and Ndebele were also conducted.
Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent two days conducting field interviews in urban and rural settings. Urban and rural areas were selected to provide the field staff with a better appreciation of different working environments.
The fieldwork for the 2011 LFCLS was carried out in all the 10 provinces by 202 Enumerators and 38 Team Leaders. The provincial teams comprised Supervisors (National and Provincial), Team Leaders, Enumerators and Drivers. The size and composition of these teams were such that each team consisted of one Team Leader, four to six Enumerators and a Driver.
The fieldwork for the LFCLS was carried out from 9 to 29 June, 2011 and interviews were conducted in local languages. The respondents were assured of the confidentiality of results under the provision of the Census and Statistics Act [Chapter 10:29] of 2007. The overall response rate was 93.5 percent and the reasons for non-response include:
- Household members were away for an extended period during the survey period
- Dwelling units were vacant
- Refusals to participate in the survey.
The quality of data obtained in the field to a greater extent depends on the quality of training and amount of supervision done during data collection. During the fieldwork, supervision was achieved through the following strategies:
- Checking if the itineraries were being prepared and followed
- Checking team organization and deployment
- Conducting spot checks and making sure the enumerators visited the correct EA and households
- Checking whether correct procedures on interviewing were being followed
- Editing completed questionnaires for correctness and completeness
- Attending to some technical and administrative issues as they arose
The Household Surveys Branch coordinated the administration and logistics of the survey, with the Provincial Supervisors coordinating the overall supervision of data collection in their respective provinces. The survey supervisory team consisted of national core team members from the Head Office who were assigned a province each to supervise, 10 Provincial Supervisors and Team Leaders. Each Team Leader was assigned four to six Enumerators to supervise and each Enumerator covered two EAs.
Each province was allocated three vehicles and fuel to cover 21 days of fieldwork for supervision and deployment of field staff to inaccessible areas.
Publicity for the 2011 LFCLS was done through the following structures:
- Provincial Level: Publicity was done through the Provincial Development Committees (PDCs) by the Provincial Supervisors
- District Level: Publicity was done through the District Development Committees (DDCs) by District Team Leaders
- Ward Level: Publicity was done through the Ward councilors by Team Leaders
- Village Level: Publicity was done through the Village Heads, Kraal Heads and other influential persons in the village and EA by Enumerators.
In addition to the methods mentioned above, flyers publicizing the 2011 LFCLS and the National Baseline Survey on Life Experiences of Adolescence, which was to be conducted in August of the same year, as well as other activities of ZIMSTAT, were distributed to influential persons in all provinces. The publicity was done to ensure that potential respondents understood the objectives of the survey so that they contributed willingly and honestly without fear of the information being used for anything else other than statistical purposes.
After data collection, Provincial Supervisors and Team Leaders in all provinces checked and edited questionnaires and conducted call backs where necessary. Completed questionnaires were sent to the Head Office for coding and editing before data processing.
Data entry and verification was performed during the period 13 July to 4 August 2011, using the Census and Survey Processing (CSPro), a Windows-based software. During data entry, further editing of computer identified errors were done and corrections made. Data ranges in numerical values were used to eliminate erroneous data as a result of mistakes made during coding. For missing values, extra codes were devised to cater for them. Tabulation was done using Statistical Analysis System (SAS); also a Windows- based software, for data analysis.