The Population and Housing Census 2000 was prepared and conducted according to the recommendations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat), which guarantee that the census data are internationally comparable. Also the comparability with the data of previous censuses carried out in Estonia was taken into account. Census 2000 was carried out from March 31 to April 9.
The Statistical Office of Estonia was responsible for conducting the Census. The purpose of the Census was to collect data on the size, composition and distribution of the country's population and access housing stock and conditions. The moment of the Census was 00.00 on 31 March 2000; the data collected in the Census reflect the characteristics of housing and of the population as of the moment of the Census.
The content of the Census data and the data collection methods were developed in the Statistical Office in cooperation with the experts of different fields. Regulation of the Government of the Republic 5 March 1999 approved the Census questionnaires and Census rules.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
The scope of the study includes:
- Population size and composition
- Demographic characteristics of respondents
- Household members list
- Agricultural activity
- Sources of subsistence/occupation
- Dwelling characteristics.
The Census covered all country.
The Statistical Office of Estonia (SOE) launched the mapping programme for the 2000 Population and Housing Census in 1995. After completing the test areas the specifications for the digital Census maps were finalized. According to the Specification, 1:50 000 maps in rural areas and 1:5 000 maps in urban areas were drawn. The specification was optimized to create a cartographic basis for the Census planning (Census area (CA) delineation) and for the Census itself (maps for enumerators, maps for supervisors, etc.).
The Census mapping process was outsourced from SOE. The work was done by two companies - one in urban, another in rural areas. The production methodology was different in urban and rural areas. In rural areas, paper maps of the 1989 Census were used as a base source material, digitized by the mapping company and updated by local governments. In urban areas, the existing maps and orthophotos were used as a base source and the maps were updated by the mapping company. For rural and urban areas the municipalities compiled household lists including the number of inhabitants in each building or apartment. The purpose of household lists was to provide information about the number of inhabitants for the delineation of enumeration areas (EA).
The borders of Census units were marked on digital Population Census maps and the maps were printed for Census purposes. SOE stores digital maps in urban areas in Mapinfo, in rural areas in ArcView software and household lists in Foxpro software. The Census maps were ready by December 1999. Digital Population Census maps with the registered borders of administrative and settlement units are the basis for presenting the Census results in a cartographic way and for the development of Census GIS.
The Census covered:
- persons who were in the Republic of Estonia at the moment of the Census (March 31, at 00.00) (excluding the diplomatic staff of foreign diplomatic missions and consular posts and their family members and persons in active service in foreign army);
- persons who resided in the Republic of Estonia but who were in foreign states temporarily for a term of up to one year;
- diplomatic staff of diplomatic missions and consular posts of the Republic of Estonia and their family members, who were in a foreign state at the moment of the Census;
- residential buildings and other buildings used for habitation, and apartments and other dwellings situated therein (excluding buildings of foreign diplomatic missions and consular posts and dwellings situated therein).
Producers and sponsors
Statistical Office of Estonia
Statistical Office of Estonia
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
5,400 enumerators, 1,050 supervisors and 161 heads of Census districts carried out the fieldwork of the Census. All Census staff was trained previously.
Data Collection Notes
The Census was preceded by a preliminary visit by the enumerator on 26-29 March 2000. This meant that the enumerator got acquainted with his/her enumeration area and the people living there, delivered the leaflet introducing the Census, and agreed on the time for enumeration suitable for the residents.
The Population Census started on 31 March and lasted through 9 April. During the Census 5,400 enumerators interviewed people all over Estonia. The enumerator visited on an average 285 persons. The Census was managed by 161 census area managers, 1,000 supervisors and 5,400 enumerators. The persons covered by the Census did not fill in the questionnaires themselves - rather the enumerators entered the responses. It was to ensure the quality of filled Census questionnaire. Imperfect questionnaire entries would have raised problems at the time of scanning.
Statistical Office of Estonia
PHC 2000 was conducted using two types of questionnaires - the Personal Questionnaire containing 31 questions, and the Housing Questionnaire with 12 questions. The Census questionnaires collected personal, household information as well as dwelling data.
1. Personal data include:
1.1. first and surname; personal identification code;
1.2. person’s and his/her parents’ place of birth, person’s permanent place of residence and location at the Census moment, person’s permanent place of residence on 12 January 1989, year of arrival in Estonia, address of the place of work;
1.3. sex, date of birth, citizenship, ethnic nationality, mother tongue, knowledge of languages (answering the question is voluntary), marital status, number of children given birth to, mother’s age at the time of birth of the first child;
1.4. main sources of subsistence, length of working week in the week preceding the Census (number of hours worked), social status (in military service, not working, actively seeking work, ready to start work, student (pupil), pensioner, homemaker, not working for other reasons), name of the main place of work / main employer (answering the question is voluntary), economic activity of the main place of work, employment status at the main place of work (employee with stable contract, other employee, entrepreneur-employer, farmer with salaried employees, self-employed person, freelancer, farmer without salaried employees, contributing family workers in a family enterprise, farm, member of commercial association), occupation at main place of work, length of usual working week;
1.5. level of curriculum that the person has completed or studies currently, highest level of vocational or professional education completed, highest level of general education completed;
1.6. long-term disability or illness determined by the medical commission of experts;
1.7. religious affiliation and faith confessed (answering the question is voluntary).
2. Household data describe:
2.1. type of institution;
2.2. list of household members, relationship of each household member to the reference person, family relationships between the household members, permanent and temporary members of the household, duration of absence of a permanent household member in months, duration of presence of a temporary household member;
2.3. legal basis for the use of the dwelling;
2.4. the links between the household and agricultural activity.
3. Data on dwelling include:
3.1. type, form of ownership, total area, number of rooms, existence of a kitchen, plumbing and heating (water supply system, sewage disposal system, hot water, bath (shower), sauna, flush toilet, electricity, gas, central heating, electric heating);
3.2. address, type and period of construction of the building containing dwellings.
Two scanners were used for optical data entry. The application software for data processing were worked out in co-operation with the company AS AboBase Systems and based on Oracle tools. The scanning of the Census questionnaires was performed in 2000 from 10 May to 22 September. During that period 3,505,451 questionnaires were scanned. 135 operators who had passed the training were engaged in the data processing.
For evaluating the coverage of the Census and the quality of the Census data, a post-enumeration sample survey was organized. It covered about 1% of the population and a stratified random sample of enumeration areas was drawn. The post-enumeration survey was carried out from 14 to 19 April 2000 in 50 enumeration areas. Comparison of the Census data and the data collected in the post-enumeration survey showed that the undercoverage of the Census was on an average 1.2%.
The results of the 2000 Population Census are available electronically (public database) and also in printed format. All publications of 2000 Population and Housing Census are available also on the website of the Statistical Office and they present statistics on population, dwellings, buildings containing dwellings and living conditions of the population in Estonia as a whole and by administrative units.
The Census data are confidential and used only for statistical purposes. The results received on the basis of these data are published in accordance with the Data Protection Law.
The use of the datasets must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
Statistical Office of Estonia. Estonia Population and Housing Census (PHC) 2000, Ref. EST_2000_PHC_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.