The CFSVA process generates a document that describes the food security status of various segments of a population over various parts of a country or region, analyses the underlying causes of vulnerability, and recommends appropriate interventions to deal with the problems. CFSVAs are undertaken in all crisis-prone food-insecure countries. The shelf life of CFSVAs is determined by the indicators being collected and reported. In most situations, CFSVA findings are valid for three to five years, unless there are drastic food security changes in the meantime.
Within a broader organisational effort to better understand vulnerability to food insecurity at the country level, the World Food Programme in Nepal (WFP-Nepal) undertook a comprehensive food security and vulnerability analysis in Nepal. The objective of the survey was to deepen and expand current knowledge on food insecurity and vulnerability among rural households at the sub-regional level in Nepal. As such, a standard set of questions, developed by WFP, needed to be answered:
• Which populations are vulnerable to hunger and food insecurity?
• Where do they live?
• What are the underlying causes of their food insecurity?
• What types of interventions (food and non-food) are needed to reduce their vulnerability to food insecurity?
WFP will utilize the data collected by this survey to guide its future assistance strategy and as a baseline against which changes in food security conditions are monitored through its real-time field surveillance system.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- HOUSEHOLD: Demography, education, health, migration, housing, income activities, household expenditures, household asset ownership, risk exposure and response, agricultural activities, livestock ownership, food consumption (7-day food frequency), woman and child health and nutrition, child anthropometry, height and weight/length, antenatal health care, morbidity, vitamin A supplementation.
- KEY INFORMANT: Access to schools, markets, health facilities, main sources of income in the community, migration patterns.
The survey covered all household heads and women (with anthropometric measurements taken on both women 15-49 years of age and children 0-59 months old) in each sampled household.
A household is defined as a group of people currently living and eating together "under the same roof" (or in same compound if the HH has 2 structures).
Producers and sponsors
World Food Programme
Humanitarian Aid Department of the European Commission
Nepal is also divided into three Ecological Zones or belts: Mountains, Hills and Terai: which run transversally from east to west and intersect all five development regions. Their vastly different topographies give the three belts quite different characteristics.
The Mountain belt comprises those parts of the country above 4887 metres in elevation. Its harsh terrain makes communication and transportation difficult, and only 7% of the population live there. The Hill belt, ranging in altitude from 610 to 4887 metres, is much
more densely populated and includes the fertile valleys of Kathmandu and Pokhara. The Terai, or plains, are the most fertile part of the country.
The sample frame for this study attempted to incorporate each of these particularities into its design. Initially, a list of 35,085 wards and associated population figures was acquired through the Nepal Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Wards with populations less than 80
were removed from the frame as there would be a high likelihood of not being able interview a sufficient number of households in order for statistical representation. Likewise, all wards classified as urban by the CBS were removed as the focus of the survey was rural households.
For the purposes of drawing the sample using ward level population data, the two abovementioned strata corresponding with geographic and administrative boundaries within which wards are located were utilised as the sample frame (i.e., Hill, Mountain, Terai and each of the development regions). However, further investigation revealed that the Hill belt (and those development regions within that belt) was extremely heterogeneous in terms of populations, topography, culture and society.
In order to better represent households residing in the Hill agro-ecological belt, physical and socioeconomic data obtained from the National Living Standards Survey from 2003/2004 were used to help identify possible intra-belt variations. These data were reanalysed
using principal components analysis to cluster districts with similar characteristics, but different enough that the hill belt could be disaggregated into different socio-ecological zones/classes from which sample wards could be drawn. The maps below summarise the main indicators used for the clustering of districts within the hill belt.
Based on the analysis of principal components and clusters, the three strata (and respective substrata) presented in the table in the right served as the basis for drawing the sample and presenting survey findings. Based on these strata, a sample was drawn employing a two-stage cluster sample procedure. Based on their location within the three categories of zones, wards were randomly selected based on a probability proportional to their population. In order to draw a sample that is representative for each of the three strata (belt, development region, WFP SE zone), a minimum number of wards (30) were selected for each sub-stratum. For each ward selected, 10 randomly selected households were enumerated. In this manner, the findings would be representative for each of the three sample strata and sub-strata. A total of 180 wards were selected using this process. However, this number was reduced after discussions with and advice from individuals in the WFP Nepal Country Office who were familiar with the reality on the ground. Wards were then eliminated due to the threat of insecurity or difficulty of access.
Deviations from the Sample Design
The ongoing conflict between Government and Maoist forces meant that entire Districts and wards that were part of the original sample were inaccessible. Given these realities, replacement wards were chosen based on their population sizes so as to maintain the integrity of the overall sample.
The selection was finalized considering two conditions:
(1) That the sample would remain representative at all 3 levels: by belt, by WFP socioecological zones and by development regions; and
(2) The sample was realistic and feasible – in terms of both security and access.
Household weights are calculated by population per region.
The child level data and women of reproductive age data are self weighting within the household sampling technique, and so the same weights were applied to these datasets.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The survey was designed to collect quantitative information at the household and individual level and more qualitative data at the community level.
Two different data collection instruments were designed to serve this purpose: a household questionnaire with an anthropometric module and a key informant interview. All instruments were prepared in English, but then were translated into Nepali for data collection purposes.
Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping
World Food Programme
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
World Food Programme. Nepal Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis 2005. Ref. NPL_2005_CFSVA_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://nada.vam.wfp.org/index.php/catalog on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
World Bank, Development Data Group
The World Bank
Reviewed the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (February 2014). Edited version, the initial version (Version 01 - June 2012, DDI-NPL-WFP-CFSVA-2005-v1.0) DDI was done by Souleika Abdillahi (WFP).
Following DDI elements are edited, DDI ID, Study ID, and Abbreviation. External resources (questionnaires and report) are attached to the DDI.