The CFSVA process generates a document that describes the food security status of various segments of a population over various parts of a country or region, analyses the underlying causes of vulnerability, and recommends appropriate interventions to deal with the problems. CFSVAs are undertaken in all crisis-prone food-insecure countries. The shelf life of CFSVAs is determined by the indicators being collected and reported. In most situations, CFSVA findings are valid for three to five years, unless there are drastic food security changes in the meantime.
The CFSVA seeks to compile and critically analyze information on the food security and nutrition situation in Tanzania and to provide comprehensive baseline information to all the actors working in humanitarian assistance and development (e.g. Government, UN agencies, civil society, and donors, etc.). Primary objectives include to:
a) provide an accurate and detailed assessment of the current food and nutrition security situation using primary data collected during the CFSVA and other existing data;
b) identify areas where assistance may be required and build a profile of households who are vulnerable and food insecure; and
c) assess the causes and risk factors of food insecurity and child malnutrition from a multidisciplinary perspective and to determine potential ways to mitigate both.
By answering these questions, the CFSVA seeks to inform and evaluate current nutrition and food security programming in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar including ongoing national processes such as the 2005-2010 MKUKUTA and MKUZA. The CFSVA also aims to strengthen existing contingency plans by identifying populations vulnerable to food insecurity and assessing susceptibility to socio-economic, natural, political or other shocks.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- assets and productive assets;
- inputs to livelihoods;
- sources of credit;
- agricultural production;
- food sources and consumption;
- food security;
- external assistance;
- maternal health and nutrition;
- child health and nutrition.
- livestock and pasture;
- access to social services.
Markets and trader questionnaire:
- market prices and availability;
- market performance;
- credit and stocks strategy;
- transaction costs;
- access to markets.
Rural areas in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.
Household is defined as "group of individuals sharing same budget for basic expenses, including food, housing, health and sanitation".
The survey covered household heads and women (with anthropometric measurements taken on both women 14-49 years of age and children 6 and 59 months old) in each sampled household.
Producers and sponsors
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
Government of Tanzania
Office of the Chief Government Statistician (OCGS)
Government of Zanzibar
World Food Programme
United States Agency for International Development
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Administratively, Tanzania is divided into 21 regions and 128 districts. Zanzibar is divided into 5 regions and 10 districts. The goal of the CFSVA sampling strategy was to provide sufficiently precise estimates of key food security indicators for the rural areas of each region in Mainland Tanzania and each district in Zanzibar. To achieve this, a stratified, two-stage sampling methodology was adopted.
For Mainland Tanzania, the first stage involved stratifying rural areas by region. Then, 21 Enumeration Areas (EAs) were identified per region using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling techniques and 10 households were chosen per EA using systematic sampling techniques. This yielded 210 households per region for a total of 4,410 households in Mainland Tanzania. For Zanzibar, on the other hand, the first stage involved stratifying the rural areas of the islands by district. Then, similar to the Mainland, 21 EAs were identified per district using PPS sampling techniques and 10 households were chosen per EA using systematic sampling techniques. This yielded 210 households per district for a total of 1,890 households in Zanzibar.
The 2006 agricultural sample census served as the sampling frame. As this sample census was not exhaustive, sub-sampling techniques were employed. The NBS/OCGS was the key technical partner responsible for determining the sampling size (according the agreed upon criteria) and for conducting the actual sampling in collaboration with WFP technical personnel.
Complex weighting techniques were employed which aimed to reduce the weight given towards high population Enumeration Areas (EAs) and increase the weight given to lower population EAs. This required that region–specific household weights be modified at an EA level using an EA population correction factor, with the end result being cluster specific weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The CFSVA relied on both secondary and primary data sources. Primary data collection involved the following instruments:
Household questionnaire: This questionnaire was administered to household heads and women (with anthropometric measurements taken on both women and children) in each sampled household. It consisted of thirteen modules, including: (1) demographics; (2) housing and facilities; (3) household assets and productive assets; (4) inputs to livelihoods; (5) migration and remittances; (6) sources of credit; (7) agricultural production; (8) expenditure; (9) food sources and consumption; (10) shocks and food security; (11) external assistance and programme participation; (12) maternal health and nutrition; and (13) child health and nutrition.
Community questionnaire: This semi-structured questionnaire was administered to opinion leaders and key informants in each sampled community. It consisted of six modules, including: (1) demographic information; (2) agriculture; (3) livestock and pasture; (4) health; (5) access to social services and economic infrastructure; and (6) access to markets. Information gathered through these interviews was intended to contextualize the information gathered in the household questionnaire.
Markets and trader questionnaire: This questionnaire was administered to a selection of traders in key marketplaces in each region. It consisted of 6 modules, including: (1) general characteristics of the traders; (2) market prices and availability; (3) market performance; (4)
constraints and response capacity; (5) credit and stocks strategy; and (6) transaction costs, competition, and household market access. Information gathered in the course of these interviews was intended to further inform food availability and access issues.
The internationally–accepted key indicators used in the questionnaire modules above were decided upon in collaboration with key stakeholders and partners. Again, it should be stressed that while all instruments were used throughout the country, only certain modules of the household questionnaire were of sufficient quality to use in Zanzibar.
Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping
World Food Programme
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
World Food Programme. Tanzania Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis Assessment 2009. Ref. TZA_2009_CFSVA_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://nada.vam.wfp.org/index.php/catalog on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
World Bank Development Data Group
The World Bank
Reviewed the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (February 2014). Edited version, the initial version (Version 01 - March 2012, DDI-TAZ-WFP-CFSVA-2009-v1.0) of DDI was done by Souleika Abdillahi (WFP).
Following DDI elements are edited, DDI ID, Study ID, and Abbreviation. External resources (questionnaires and report) are attached to the DDI.