The Collection of Statistics (Central) Rules, 1959 framed under the 1953 Act provided for, among others, a comprehensive Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) in India. This survey replaced both the CMI (Census of Manufacturing Industries) and SSMI (Sample Survey of Manufacturing Industries). The ASI was launched in 1960 with 1959 as the reference year and is continuing since then except for 1972. For ASI, the Collection of Statistics Act 1953 and the rules frame there-under in 1959 provides the statutory basis. The ASI refers to the factories defined in accordance with the Factories Act 1948, and thus has coverage wider than that of the CMI and SSMI put together. ASI Time-Series Data was collected from 1998-99 to 2007-2008.
The Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) is the principal source of industrial statistics in India. It provides statistical information to assess changes in the growth, composition and structure of organised manufacturing sector comprising activities related to manufacturing processes, repair services, gas and water supply and cold storage. The Survey is conducted annually under the statutory provisions of the Collection of Statistics Act 1953, and the Rules framed there-under in 1959, except in the State of Jammu & Kashmir where it is conducted under the State Collection of Statistics Act, 1961 and the rules framed there-under in 1964.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The primary unit of enumeration in the survey is a factory in the case of manufacturing industries, a workshop in the case of repair services, an undertaking or a licensee in the case of electricity, gas & water supply undertakings and an establishment in the case of bidi & cigar industries. The owner of two or more establishments located in the same State and pertaining to the same industry group and belonging to census scheme is, however, permitted to furnish a single consolidated return. Such consolidated returns are common feature in the case of bidi and cigar establishments, electricity and certain public sector undertakings.
FIXED CAPITAL, WORKING CAPITAL, EMPLOYEES, WAGES AND SALARIES, TOTAL EMOLUMENTS, FUELS CONSUMED, DEPRECIATION, NET VALUE ADDED, TOTAL INPUT, TOTAL OUTPUT, BLOCK-A (IDENTIFICATION BLOCK FOR OFFICIAL USE), BLOCK-B (TO BE FILLED BY OWNERS), BLOCK-C (FIXED ASSETS), BLOCK-D (WORKING CAPITAL AND LOANS), BLOCK-E (EMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR COST), BLOCK-F (OTHER EXPENSES), BLOCK-G (OTHER OUTPUT/RECEIPTS), BLOCK-H (INPUT ITEMS - Indigenous items consumed), BLOCK-I (INPUT ITEMS - Directly imported items only (consumed)), BLOCK-J (PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS (Manufactured by the unit))
The ASI extends to the entire country
The ASI covers all factories registered under Sections 2m(i) and 2m(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948 i.e. those factories employing 10 or more workers using power; and those employing 20 or more workers without using power. The survey also covers bidi and cigar manufacturing establishments registered under the Bidi & Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966 with coverage as above. All electricity undertakings engaged in generation, transmission and distribution of electricity registered with the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) were covered under ASI irrespective of their employment size. Certain servicing units and activities like water supply, cold storage, repairing of motor vehicles and other consumer durables like watches etc. are covered under the Survey. Though servicing industries like motion picture production, personal services like laundry services, job dyeing, etc. are covered under the Survey but data are not tabulated, as these industries do not fall under the scope of industrial sector defined by the United Nations. Defence establishments, oil storage and distribution depots, restaurants, hotels, café and computer services and the technical training institutes, etc. are excluded from the purview of the Survey.
From ASI 1998-99, the electricity units registered with the CEA and the departmental units such as railway workshops, RTC workshops, Govt. Mints, sanitary, water supply, gas storage etc. are not covered, as there are alternative sources of their data compilation for the GDP estimates by the National Accounts Division of CSO.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Organisation (CSO)
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI)
National Sample Survey Organization
Government of India
A new sampling design was adopted for ASI 2007-08.
For ASI 2007-2008, the Census Sector has been defined as follows:
All industrial units belonging to the five less industrially developed states/ UT's viz. Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
For the rest of the twenty-six states/ UT's., (i) units having 100 or more workers, and (ii) all factories covered under Joint Returns.
c) Strata (State by 4-digit of NIC-04) having less than or equal to six units after selecting the Census Sector units as defined above are also selected as census sector.
d) From the remaining merged frame (main frame 2004-05 plus supplementary frame 2005-06 plus supplementary frame 2006-07 plus supplementary frame 2007-08), samples were drawn considering higher allocation for states having relatively higher percentage contribution in sample sector in terms of GVA based on last 2 (two) years' available data. Accordingly, state wise census and sample sector contribution of GVA was calculated based on last two years' available data along with the RSE of GVA estimates in sample sector based on data of ASI 2005-06. In general, sampling fraction of 12% was considered for all the states within a StateXSectorX4-digit NIC with a minimum of 6 units evenly distributed in two sub-samples, except (i) Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Madhya Pradesh, Daman & Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Goa with 20% sampling fraction, (ii) Delhi & Rajasthan with 13% sampling fraction, (iii) Bihar & Pondicherry with 15% sampling fraction due to relatively higher contribution of sample sector to the total GVA and higher RSE.
Deviations from the Sample Design
The sampling design has undergone changes in the past on several occasions.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Data for the ASI are collected through a comprehensive schedule. In the initial rounds, the schedule sought particulars relating to manufacturing activity only. Over the years, additions were made to meet the specific data requirements of various organisations. By 1973-74, the schedule consisted of five Parts: Part I on manufacturing, Part II on labour turnover, Part III on stocks & consumption of components and accessories in small scale sector, Part IV on construction expenditure and Part V on indirect taxes, sales, subsidies and capacity of power equipments installed. It was felt that the ASI schedule had become too unwieldy and complicated. So a modified schedule with three parts on manufacturing, labour and construction was adopted with effect from ASI 1974-75. Further modifications in the schedule were carried out in 1987-88, and again in 1997-98. Part III schedule relating to construction has been discontinued from 1998-99. The schedule from ASI 2003-04 also incorporated some minor changes.
Field Operation Division
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
Data submitted by the factories undergo manual scrutiny at different stages.
1) They are verified by field staff of NSSO from factory records.
2) Verified returns are manually scrutinized by senior level staff before sending to data processing centre.
3) At the data processing centre these are scrutinized before data entry.
4) The entered data are subjected to computer editing and corrections.
5) Tabulated data are checked for anomalies and consistency with previous results.
Scrutinizing officer checks the following points:
1. Examine the Industry Code with reference to production/Process and check whether Industry Code is reported in 5digit NIC 2008 against item 5 of Block A.
2. Checks whether Proper remarks for all important parameters such as GVA, Working Capital, wage rate, number of workers, distributive expenses, depreciation etc. are given.
3. Check basic entries where Output/ Input ratio is less than 0.5.
4. Check Ratio of distributive expenses to gross sales where this ratio exceeds 20%.
Deputy Director General
Computer Center, Ministry of Statistics and P.I
Deputy Director General
CSO (IS Wing)
Deputy Director General
The ASI data at factory level are strictly confidential and are to be used only for statistical purposes after aggregation.
The collection of Statistics Act assures confidentiality of the data to the factories.
To ensure confidentiality, data of factories with less than three units in an industry are merged. Location of the unit is also not divulged in the micro data.
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Ministry of Statistics and P I
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (April,2014) Edited version based on DDI (IND-CSO-ASI-2007-08) that was done by MOSPI, CC.
Revised metadata - to include corrected Block B Accounting Period information