The HSES 2008-2009 is an improved version of the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (which had been conducted regularly since 1966) and was carried out between July 2007 and June 2008. It is the latest among other household surveys implemented by the NSO to evaluate the living standards of the Mongolian population such as the Assessment of the Living Standards of the Population of Mongolia, 1995; the Living Standards Measurement Survey, 1998; and the Household Income and Expenditure Survey/Living Standards Measurement Survey, 2002-03. The HSES is a permanent survey and every three years it will feature an extended version. This will not only allow monitoring poverty and living standards annually but also to capture additional information in order to help the government to design better policies.
The HSES 2008-2009 is a nationally representative survey, which aims to evaluate and monitor the income and expenditure of households, update the basket and weights for consumer price index, and offer inputs to the national accounts. The HSES is a survey regularly conducted by the NSO and covers a 12-month period for analysis.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The HSES was conceived as an improved version of the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) because several modules from a typical Living Standards Measurement Survey were merged to the previous HIES.
The scope of the Household Socio-Economic is a household, all members of household and includes:
-Basic socio-economic information about the members of the household
-Agriculture and herding
-Non-farm family businesses
-Savings and loans,
-Housing and energy
-Nonfood expenditures and food consumption.
consumption/consumer behaviour [1.1]
economic conditions and indicators [1.2]
working conditions [3.6]
basic skills education [6.1]
general health [8.4]
land use and planning [10.2]
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND GROUPINGS 
Household Socio-Economic Survey
Living Standards Measurements Survey
National Statistical Office
The survey is nationally representative and covers the whole of Mongolia.
Mongolia is divided into 21 aimags. Ulaanbaatar is the capital city and is subdivided into 9 districts, 121 khoroos and 1,035 khesegs. Each kheseg has approximately 200 households. The rest of the country is divided into soums and bags. One of the soums in each aimag is normatively considered as the aimag center, while the others are regarded as the rural area. Darkhan-Uul and Orkhon were the only two aimags were 24 bags were selected.
- Households (defined as a group of persons who usually live and eat together)
- Household members (defined as members of the household who usually live in the household, which may include people who did not sleep in the household the previous night, but does not include visitors who slept in the household the previous night but do not usually live in the household)
Producers and sponsors
National Statistical Office of Mongolia
World Bank, Mongolia
Funding of survey implementation
The 2008-2009 HSES used the sampling frame which was developed by the NSO based on 2005 population figures obtained from local registration offices. This updated sampling frame was of great importance because the spatial distribution of the population had changed dramatically over the last years and any frame based on the Census 2000 would not be relevant anymore.
The design of the survey recognizes three explicit strata: Ulaanbaatar, aimag centers, and soum centers and the countryside. In addition, the sample was implicitly allocated by districts and khoroos in Ulaanbaatar, and by aimags in rural areas. Each aimag center was an explicit sub-stratum. The selection strategy was different in each stratum: a two-stage process in urban areas and a three-stage process in rural areas. In Ulaanbaatar, 360 khesegs were initially selected, from each of which 10 households were chosen. In aimag centers, 12 or 24 bags were initially selected, and then 10 households from each bag. In rural areas, first 52 soums, then 12 bags in each soum and finally 8 households in each bag were selected. All 1,248 primary sampling units or clusters (units, bags or soums) were selected with a probability proportional to their sizes and were randomly allocated into twelve months of survey fieldwork.
The use of this sampling procedure means that households living in different areas of the country have been selected with different probabilities. Therefore, in order to obtain representative statistics for each stratum and for the country as a whole, it was necessary to use sampling weights. The weight which was assigned to each household corresponds to the inverse of the selection probability and takes the sampling strategy into account.
The sample of 11,232 households was allocated as follows: 3,600 in Ulaanbaatar, 2,640 in aimag centers and 4,992 in rural areas and soum centers. However, the actual sample size used for this analysis is slightly smaller: 3,572 households in Ulaanbaatar; 2,639 in aimag centers; and 4,987 in rural areas and small towns. The difference is explained by 60 households, for which complete information was unavailable and were thus, excluded.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The overall data quality is to be considered of good standard. On the one hand, the large amounts of information that the HSES collects from households imposed new demands on operational strategies and data management compared to the previous HIES.
National Statistical Office
Parliamnet of Mongolia
The questionnaire of HSES 2007/08 contains 15 major modules: basic socio-economic information about the members of the household, education, health, reproductive health, migration, employment, wage jobs, job search, agriculture and herding, non-farm family businesses, other income, savings and loans, housing and energy, durable goods, nonfood expenditures and food consumption. Also contains 4 additional modules: purchases of food during the past month for urban households (by recall ), consumption of food and other frequenty purchased commodities for urban households (from diary), purchases of food during the part month for rural households, consumption of food during the past 7 days (by recall ) for rural households.
All procedures were streamlined and centralized, which is likely to have had a positive impact on the quality of the information. On the other hand, three different rounds of consistency checks were applied to the data: first during the data entry process, then during the compilation of the raw data files and finally during the preparation of this report. In all cases it was possible to compare these listings against the actual questionnaires filled out by the households (and at least during the first round of checks, some households were visited again) and the data were amended whenever a mistake was found.Databases for the HSES 2007/08 have been unified and data error checking was made (by using STATA program) in cooperation with working group.
Head,Population and Social Statistical Department
Data processing and Technology Department
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Survey datasets are distributed at no cost for legitimate academic research, with the condition that we receive an abstract or a detailed description of any research project that will be using the data prior to authorizing their distribution. Once received, the datasets must not be passed on to other researchers without the written consent of either NSO or World Bank. Copies of all reports and publications based on the requested data must be sent to NSO and World Bank.
Requests for access to the datasets may be made through the website www.nso.mn.
The following statement must be used as citation: "Source of data: National Statistical Office of Mongolia, Household Socio-Economic Survey 2008-2009, Version 1.0 of the dataset (2008), provided by World bank"
Disclaimer and copyrights
The National Statistical Office of Mongolia and World Bank provide these data to external users without any warranty or responsibility implied. They accept no responsibility for the results and/or implications of any actions resulting from the use of these data.
National Statistical Office of Mongolia and World bank