This is the third Living Standards Survey counducted in Ghana. The first and second rounds of GLSS were conducted in 1987/88 and 1988/89 respectively.
Following the pattern set in the first two rounds of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS), the questionnaire used for the third round again covered a wide spectrum of topics, such as education, health, housing, employment, income and expenditure, which affect the living standards of households. GLSS3 thus provides data on various aspects of Ghanaian household economic and social activities, which are of help for monitoring the impact of the Government's Economic Recovery Programme.
GLSS3 differed from the two previous rounds, however, in concentrating particularly on the income, consumption and expenditure of households at a much more disaggregated level than previously. As a result, GLSS3 should provide much more accurate estimates of income and expenditure, including the imputed value of home produced food which is consumed by households. The data on household expenditure are also being used to derive the weights needed for rebasing the Consumer Price Index. The GLSS data on income, consumption and expenditure, together with other individual, household and community level data collected in GLSS3, will also provide a valuable database for national and regional planning purposes.
In GLSS1 and GLSS2 only two visits, two weeks apart, had been made to each selected household, and the expenditure data on food and non-food items were collected on the second visit, with a recall period of two weeks. An attempt was also made to obtain annual estimates of household expenditure on food and non-food items, as well as annual estimates of consumption of home produced food items.
For GLSS3 much more detailed information was collected by means of frequent visits to each household. Households were visited eight times at two-day intervals in rural areas, and 11 times at three-day intervals in urban areas. By reducing the recall period from two weeks to two or three days, much improved estimates of household consumption and expenditure should be obtained.
Detailed anthropometric data had been collected in GLSS1 and GLSS2, involving the need to include an anthropometrist in each survey team. This topic had to be dropped from GLSS3, so that the expanded income, consumption and expenditure data could be collected.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of Living Standards Survey 1991-1992 includes:
- HOUSEHOLD: Household roster, Education, Health, Employment and time use, Migration, Housing, Agriculture, Household expenditure, Non-farm enterprise, Income transfers, Credit, asset and savings
- COMMUNITY: Demographic information, Economy and infrastructure, Education, Agriculture
- PRICE: Food, Non-food, Pharmceutical
Producers and sponsors
Ghana Statistical Service (GSS)
A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the GLSS sample. Initially, 4565 households were selected for GLSS3, spread around the country in 407 small clusters; in general, 15 households were taken in an urban cluster and 10 households in a rural cluster. The actual achieved sample was 4552 households. Because of the sample design used, and the very high response rate achieved, the sample can be considered as being selfweighting, though in the case of expenditure data weighting of the expenditure values is required.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Three types of questionnaires were used for GLSS3: a household questionnaire, a community questionnaire and a price questionnaire.
The household questionnaire was in two parts. Part A collected information on household composition, education, health and fertility, employment and time use, migration, and housing characteristics, and it was also used to identify the respondents for Part B. Part B covered agricultural activities, including the consumption of home produce, household expenditure, non-farm enterprises, other income and expenditure, and credit, assets, and savings.
All urban households were given a special diary, and requested to record on a separate page each day all the expenses they incurred. This had to be done by a literate member of the household who had already been identified during the listing exercise. In the case of illiterate households the supervisor or the supplementary interviewer visited them and did the recording. Although to a large extent the use of diaries seems to have served its intended purpose of facilitating the recording of expenditures for many urban households, some caution has to be taken in interpreting the results and estimates derived from the diaries. In particular, while most of the expenses incurred by the household as a unit are likely to have been recorded fairly accurately, it is possible that some of the expenses made by individual members of the household outside the home may have been missed.
Details of infrastructure and other facilities available to rural communities were recorded in the community questionnaire. This questionnaire was usually administered at a meeting with the community chief, along with his elders and other knowledgeable people in the community.
The price questionnaire was used to collect information on prices in the local market. This information is needed for comparing prices in different parts of the country, which would allow the construction of regional price indexes and the adjustment of household expenditures to a common base so as to take account of regional variations in purchasing power.
The data collected in this survey were entered directly onto microcomputers which had been installed in the eight regional capitals. Kumasi and Accra had two PCs each, while Tamale, Sunyani, Koforidua, Ho, Cape Coast and Sekondi/Takoradi had one each. Special interactive software programs had been prepared for data entry and checking, using the software package Rode-PC.Data entry was done in two rounds. In both urban and rural clusters interviewers completed Part A of the questionnaire by the end of the fifth visit to each household; and after checking them, the supervisor took these questionnaires straight away to the regional capital, where the data entry operator began keying in. Once Part B had been completed, the supervisor took these questionnaires to the regional capital, and returned with the Part A questionnaires, plus detailed printouts showing what errors had been discovered by the editing program during the keying in operation. These errors were then corrected in the field.
By the time the data entry operator had finished keying in the second batch of questionnaires (Part B), the team would have moved from those clusters to the next set of clusters. However, the next set of clusters were very close to the previous ones, so going back to correct errors detected in the second round involved travelling only a short distance. This arrangement made field reconciliation fairly easy . In addition, each set of clusters had been chosen close together so as to make supervision relatively easy. Finally, clusters in areas that were hardly accessible during the rainy season were scheduled to be covered during the dry season. At regular intervals during the fieldwork the diskettes containing the GLSS3 data for each completed cycle were returned to the headquarters in Accra. Final tabulations were produced using the SAS software package.
LSMS Data Manager
The World Bank
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download of the data files (for datasets obtained on-line)
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.